Limestone Scenery 02
The Peak District has a large limestone area.

Limestone Scenery 02

This KS3 Geography quiz takes a second look at limestone scenery. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and/or aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Sedimentary rocks are deposited in layers on the beds of oceans, seas, lakes and occasionally on dry land. The breaks between the layers are called bedding planes. They are usually areas of weakness in a mass of rock. Carboniferous limestone is no exception, but not only does it contain bedding planes, it also contains a lot of vertical joints.

Rainwater is slightly acidic and, as you should have learnt in your science lessons, calcium carbonate will dissolve in acids. Rainwater slowly dissolves the vertical joints, widening them and creating a limestone pavement. As the water travels deeper underground, it can still dissolve the limestone, particularly along the bedding planes. This is how caves and caverns are formed. A cave or cavern that is close to the surface of the earth can suffer from a collapsed roof, creating a deep and steep-sided limestone gorge.

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  1. Which streams only appear on limestone after heavy rain?
    They will only appear when there has been a lot of rain. Some are seasonal and disappear in the summer, like the river Manifold on the border of Derbyshire and Staffordshire
  2. Limestone areas often have which economic activity?
    The rock has many uses e.g. building, in steelworks, making toothpaste
  3. Gordale Scar in Yorkshire is an example of what?
    It's approximately 15-16 million years old
  4. Why does a gorge floor contain lots of boulders?
    This can happen when a cave or cavern has formed close to the surface
  5. Redeposited limestone rising from a cave floor has what name?
    The largest of these can be millions of years old - they grow at a very slow rate
  6. Which of these National Parks has the most extensive limestone area?
    The Peak District is mainly in Derbyshire but extends into neighbouring counties
  7. What are upright blocks in a limestone pavement called?
    The gaps between them are called grykes
  8. On a diagram, limestone has what type of shading?
    Because the rock is full of cracks like some brick walls
  9. Lines of horizontal weakness between layers of limestone are called what?
    Most sedimentary rocks have bedding planes
  10. Rainwater attacks limestone by which process?
    Limestone dissolves in rainwater because rainwater is naturally slightly acidic

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