GCSE Science Quiz - Biology - Fertility (AQA) (Questions)

In GCSE Science students will be taught about how organisms use nerves and hormones. This is the fourth of five quizzes on that topic and it looks in particular at the effect that hormones have in human fertility.

There are several chemical substances called hormones and they each have a different effect on us. Many processes within the human body are coordinated by hormones. They are secreted by glands and are usually transported to their target organs by the bloodstream.

Hormones regulate the functions of many organs and cells. For example, the monthly release of an egg from a woman’s ovaries and the changes in the thickness of the lining of her womb are controlled by hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and by the ovaries.

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Several hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle of a woman. Hormones are involved in promoting the release of an egg:

Human fertility is controlled by hormones. This means that knowledge of hormones can be used to decide to increase, or reduce, the chances of fertilisation and pregnancy. Some women have levels of FSH and LH that are too low to stimulate egg production. Giving them a 'fertility drug' has the effect of stimulating their eggs to mature. Oral contraceptives contain hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) that inhibit the production of FSH so that no eggs mature.

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1. The female menstrual cycle is controlled by what?
[ ] Messages from the brain sent via the nervous system
[ ] The ovaries
[ ] Several hormones
[ ] The uterus
2. Choose the pair of words that best describes where hormones are produced and how they are transported.
[ ] Brain, nerves
[ ] Stomach, blood
[ ] Bones, nerves
[ ] Glands, blood
3. Which of the following hormones is not involved in human fertility?
[ ] Aldosterone
[ ] Progesterone
[ ] FSH
[ ] Luteinising hormone
4. In which gland are FSH and LH produced?
[ ] Adrenal
[ ] Thyroid
[ ] Pituitary
[ ] Hypothalmus
5. The hormone oestrogen is secreted by the ovaries. Which of the following is a function of oestrogen?
[ ] Higher levels cause menstruation
[ ] It maintains the lining of the uterus
[ ] It causes the release of an egg from the ovary
[ ] It stops FSH from being produced
6. The hormone progesterone is secreted by the ovaries. Which of the following is a function of progesterone?
[ ] Higher levels cause menstruation
[ ] It maintains the lining of the uterus
[ ] It causes the release of an egg from the ovary
[ ] It stops FSH from being produced
7. The oral contraceptive pill greatly reduces the chances of a woman producing mature eggs and therefore reduces her chances of becoming pregnant. Which of the following are possible side effects?
[ ] Changes in weight, mood and blood pressure
[ ] Acne and eczema
[ ] Hair loss
[ ] All of the above
8. How do fertility drugs work?
[ ] They contain oestrogen which stimulates egg production in the ovaries
[ ] They contain progesterone which causes lots of eggs to be released from the ovaries
[ ] They contain three hormones which fertilise an egg in the ovaries
[ ] They contain FSH which stimulates eggs to mature in the ovaries
9. When is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) used?
[ ] When a woman is unable to produce her own eggs
[ ] When the lining of the uterus cannot support natural fertilisation
[ ] When the quantity or quality of a man's sperm is poor
[ ] When a couple wants to have twins
10. Why is FSH used during IVF?
[ ] It increases the number of eggs available for fertilisation
[ ] It stimulates the uterus to be ready to receive the fertilised egg
[ ] It prevents the woman's body from producing oestrogen
[ ] It helps the man produce better quality sperm
GCSE Science Quiz - Biology - Fertility (AQA) (Answers)
1. The female menstrual cycle is controlled by what?
[ ] Messages from the brain sent via the nervous system
[ ] The ovaries
[x] Several hormones
[ ] The uterus
There are a number of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and the ovaries that control fertility and the menstrual cycle
2. Choose the pair of words that best describes where hormones are produced and how they are transported.
[ ] Brain, nerves
[ ] Stomach, blood
[ ] Bones, nerves
[x] Glands, blood
There are many different glands in the body, each producing specific hormones
3. Which of the following hormones is not involved in human fertility?
[x] Aldosterone
[ ] Progesterone
[ ] FSH
[ ] Luteinising hormone
Aldosterone helps to regulate your blood pressure, the levels of sodium and potassium in your body and the amount of water retained in the blood
4. In which gland are FSH and LH produced?
[ ] Adrenal
[ ] Thyroid
[x] Pituitary
[ ] Hypothalmus
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain. It produces a number of other hormones as well as FSH
5. The hormone oestrogen is secreted by the ovaries. Which of the following is a function of oestrogen?
[ ] Higher levels cause menstruation
[ ] It maintains the lining of the uterus
[ ] It causes the release of an egg from the ovary
[x] It stops FSH from being produced
Oestrogen stops FSH being produced so that only one egg matures in a cycle. It also stimulates the release of LH which causes the mature egg to be released from the ovary into the uterus
6. The hormone progesterone is secreted by the ovaries. Which of the following is a function of progesterone?
[ ] Higher levels cause menstruation
[x] It maintains the lining of the uterus
[ ] It causes the release of an egg from the ovary
[ ] It stops FSH from being produced
It maintains the lining of the uterus during the middle part of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy
7. The oral contraceptive pill greatly reduces the chances of a woman producing mature eggs and therefore reduces her chances of becoming pregnant. Which of the following are possible side effects?
[x] Changes in weight, mood and blood pressure
[ ] Acne and eczema
[ ] Hair loss
[ ] All of the above
Oral contraceptives contain oestrogen, or oestrogen and progesterone. There is also a chance of an increased risk of developing blood clots but on the plus side there is evidence of a decreased risk of developing cancer of the uterus or ovaries
8. How do fertility drugs work?
[ ] They contain oestrogen which stimulates egg production in the ovaries
[ ] They contain progesterone which causes lots of eggs to be released from the ovaries
[ ] They contain three hormones which fertilise an egg in the ovaries
[x] They contain FSH which stimulates eggs to mature in the ovaries
Some women have difficulty becoming pregnant because they don't produce enough FSH to allow their eggs to mature. This type of treatment increases the production of mature eggs and can lead to twins or triplets being expected. This brings its own complications and can lead to premature or underweight babies being born
9. When is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) used?
[ ] When a woman is unable to produce her own eggs
[ ] When the lining of the uterus cannot support natural fertilisation
[x] When the quantity or quality of a man's sperm is poor
[ ] When a couple wants to have twins
It is also used when women have difficulty becoming pregnant because they don't produce enough FSH to allow their eggs to mature. The egg is fertilised outside the woman's body and then implanted into her uterus
10. Why is FSH used during IVF?
[x] It increases the number of eggs available for fertilisation
[ ] It stimulates the uterus to be ready to receive the fertilised egg
[ ] It prevents the woman's body from producing oestrogen
[ ] It helps the man produce better quality sperm
FSH is the hormone that stimulates eggs to mature in the ovaries. Having more mature eggs to work with gives a better chance of IVF succeeding