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Grammar 19 - Verb + ing and Infinitives
"Riding on a bike, the dog chased him." - What's wrong with this sentence?

Grammar 19 - Verb + ing and Infinitives

This is the fourth of our High English quizzes looking at non-finites. We have so far studied the infinitives, gerunds and participles. We found that there is an ‘-ing’ ending for both gerunds and present participles. In this quiz we study more uses of non-finites and also the past participles in infinitives of verbs.

Look at these sentences:

'I saw the old lady CROSS the road.’
'I saw the old lady CROSSING the road.’

In the first sentence, by the use of CROSS, we discern that the action of crossing the road is complete. In the second sentence, by the use of CROSSING, we discern that the action of crossing the road is just nearing completion.

We already know that the present participles of verbs end with ‘ing’ and act as an adjective in sentences and describe unfinished action. We have another form of the non-finite known as a past participle, which is similar to a present participle and functions as an adjective. Consider this sentence:

‘Bent with age, the old man totters along aimlessly.’

In this sentence, ‘bent’ is the past participle and it describes the old man (a noun) and hence the past participle acts as an adjective.

The defining characteristics of a past participle are that they end with ‘-ed,' '-d,' '-t' or '–en.’ They describe a completed action and function as adjectives. They can be used with all tenses. The time of the action is shown by the finite verbs. In our example above, ‘totters’ is the finite verb.

Another form of the past participle is the perfect participle, which represents an action as having been completed sometime in the past. Look at this sentence:

‘HAVING BEEN ELECTED To the Vidhana Sabha, the legislator left for Bangalore.’

Here we find the perfect participle in capitals indicates that the action of being elected is complete. Take the quiz that follows and learn more about non-finites, infinitives and verbs ending with 'ing'.

1.
"Mustaq was woken by the noise. He jumped out of his bed."
Choose the combined sentence that is formed with the correct non-finite using the two sentences given.
Woke by the noise, Mustaq jumped out of his bed.
Woken by the noise, Mustaq jumped out of his bed.
Waking by the noise, Mustaq jumped out of his bed.
To wake by the noise, Mustaq jumped out of his bed.
'Woken' is the correct past participle. The other options are the wrong usage of the non-finites for these sentences
2.
Choose the sentence with the correct non-finite.
I enjoy to travel.
I enjoy travelling.
I enjoy to travelling.
None of the above are correct.
The sentence uses the present participle 'ing' form and it is a non-finite. Option 1 is a sentence which is not correct because there are certain verbs such as 'enjoy' which can be followed by a present participle and not a 'to infinitive.' Option 3 is wrong as 'to' is added to a base verb only
3.
Choose the sentence with the correct non-finite.
I must remembering to take my guitar with me.
I must remember to take my guitar with me.
I remember taking my guitar with me.
Options 2 and 3 are correct but option 1 is wrong.
The sentences in options 2 and 3 are both correct because the verb 'take' can take the infinitive form or the 'ing' form depending on the meaning. In option 2 the action has not happened whereas in option 3 the action has happened. Option 1 is wrong as 'to' is added to a base verb only and not to an 'ing' form
4.
"Trupti was bored with her music lessons. She went out for a stroll."
Choose the combined sentence that is formed with the correct non-finite using the two sentences given.
To bore with her music lessons, Trupti went out for a stroll.
Boring with her music lessons, Trupti went out for a stroll.
Bored with her music lessons, Trupti went out for a stroll.
To bored with her music lessons, Trupti went out for a stroll.
The sentence uses a non-finite which is a past participle (bored). Here the past participle describes a completed action. Options 1 and 2 use a wrong non-finite. Option 4 is wrong because you cannot use 'to' with a changed base verb
5.
"Having completed his assignment, the manager let him leave the office early."
Choose the rewritten correct sentence from the following .
Having his assignment completed, the manager let him leave the office early.
The manager having completed his assignment, let him leave the office early.
His assignment completed, the manager was letting him leave the office early.
The manager let him leave the office early after his having completed the assignment.
'Having completed' is the perfect participle and option 4 is the correct usage. Note that we have to use additional words and make some changes to project the intended meaning. All the other options have the wrong sentence construction and do not convey the intended meaning
6.
Choose the sentence with the correct infinitive.
I do not intend to hurt you.
I bade him come in.
Sensing an air raid, citizens rushed to the bomb shelter.
Options 1 and 2 are correct but option 3 is wrong.
Remember that infinitives usually add 'to' before the base verb. Also, some infinitives do not add the 'to' when specific verbs such as 'bid' are used in a sentence. Option 3 is an example of a present participle (sensing). Don't be confused by 'to the bomb shelter'
7.
"As he rode on a motorcycle, the stray dog chased him."
Choose the rewritten correct sentence from the following.
While he was riding a motorcycle, the stray dog chased him.
Riding on a motorcycle, the stray dog chased him.
The stray dog chased him riding on a motorcycle.
The stray dog chased the motorcycle riding by him.
'Was riding' is the perfect participle and option 1 is the correct usage. Note that we have to use additional words and make some changes to project the intended meaning. All the other options have the wrong sentence construction and do not convey the intended meaning
8.
Choose the sentence with the correct non-finite.
I started to work here in 2005.
I started working here in 2005.
I started to working here in 2005.
Options 1 and 2 are correct but option 3 is wrong.
'Start' is a main verb which can be used along with an 'ing' non-finite or an infinitive. 'Begin' and 'continue' are verbs that are similar to 'start' and can be followed by a non-finite of the 'ing' form or the infinitive. Option 3 is wrong as 'to' is added to a base verb only and not to an 'ing' form
9.
Choose the sentence with the correct non-finite.
He offered help us wash up.
He offered helping us wash up.
He offered to help us wash up.
He offered to helping us wash up.
The sentence uses the infinitive with the 'to' and 'to help' is a non-finite. Option 1 is a sentence which is not correct because the base verb (help) should have used either the 'to' or the 'ing' form. Option 2 is a sentence in which the main verb 'offered' cannot be used with the 'ing' form of non-finites but can be used only with an infinitive. Option 4 is wrong usage as 'to' is added to a base verb only and not to an 'ing' form
10.
Choose the sentence with the correct 'ing' form.
My brother was furious with the shopkeeper under-weighing.
Most young girls enjoy singing songs.
I remember meeting my childhood friend earlier.
All of the above are correct.
All the sentences use the 'ing' form correctly
Author:  V T Narendra

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