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Reading Comprehension 12 - Inference and Conclusions 1
Maintaining tyre pressure can be performed by a car's owner, rather than by experts.

Reading Comprehension 12 - Inference and Conclusions 1

This Upper Primary English quiz is all about drawing conclusions from inferences in reading comprehension.

One of the invigorating moments of reading comprehension is deciphering the unsaid parts in a written passage or of spoken words. The writer or speaker has a boundary within which he has to present his case and each writer or speaker has his own way of putting forth his point of view.

If you read a news item, such as the description of a day’s play in a cricket test match, in two separate newspapers you will find the reports fairly different from one another. While the facts of the day’s play are captured in the score card, the descriptions of the writers will differ from one another. It is here that the concepts of inference and conclusion creep in.

Each writer will have their own reasons for presenting their case and a particular aspect of the day’s play may interest one writer more than the other. Thus, when you read a passage it is possible that the writer has left something unsaid for a number of reasons. Maybe the reader is expected to have prior knowledge, or perhaps the writer did not think the information relevant. It might even be that the writer wanted the reader to guess!

Drawing conclusions from the passage or making inference are possible for the reader if he reads the passage carefully. The reader must note the nuances of the writer in terms of facts and opinions and supplement them with his own knowledge of the subject. The reader can narrow down the conclusions drawn or inferences made by looking at possible alternatives and juxtaposing them with the facts or information provided by the writer in the passage.

Read the passage that follows and try the quiz to test your reading comprehension skills.
Keep Your Lexus Shipshape.

Imagine how a giant such as Toyota, among the largest automakers in the world and known for its advanced technology, could ever recall its cars.

Unfortunately, inanimate objects and mass produced products do encounter glitches. In an automobile the braking system is a sub-assembly and the essential components in the modern disc braking system are the master cylinder, brake pads, piston containing caliper and rotor mounted on the hub. By making use of the various parts the automobile is brought to a halt when the driver depresses the brake pedal. The automobile uses a hydraulic system to link the brake pedal with the brake system on the wheel.

The reliability of the brake system is dependent on proper maintenance of all the different parts of the brake system and the watch word is repeatability. The braking system performs a number of operations when the brake pedal is depressed and the entire system must perform the same kind of operation without fail every time. That is the essence of repeatability.

To ensure 100% repeatability, maintenance of the braking system is absolutely essential and the following five important aspects must be taken care of:

1. Brake fluid must be topped up and master cylinder constantly checked.
2. Damaged brake pads must be replaced.
3. Tyres must be road worthy.
4. Wheel alignment must be perfect.
5. Air pressure on tyres must be adequate.

While some of the maintenance functions can be undertaken by the driver, others need to be handled by professionals. The Lexus automobile is a high performance machine and requires experts to perform maintenance functions. Lexus repair can and should be undertaken only by technicians trained by Toyota.
Why do you think Toyota recalls cars?
Because cars may have glitches endangering people using them and they are recalled to undertake corrective actions and remove glitches.
Because Toyota likes to recall cars.
Because Toyota is one of the largest producers of cars in the world.
Because people are fed up of Toyota cars.
Cars are inanimate objects which are mass produced and glitches can occur during manufacturing. These glitches can manifest when customers use the car and, in order to ensure the safety of people using the cars, they are recalled to undertake corrective actions and remove glitches. Reading the whole passage will allow one to infer and evaluate the message being communicated
From the passage what can you infer about the status of Toyota in the automobile industry?
That Toyota is a bad manufacturer because it recalls cars.
That Toyota does not train its technicians properly.
That Toyota's brake system is faulty.
That Toyota is one of the largest manufacturers of cars in the world and is also known for its advanced technology.
Toyota is known to be one of the largest manufacturers of cars in the world and it is also known for its advanced technology. The other options are not supported by the information provided in the passage and, in fact, the passage stresses that cars, like any mass produced products, are liable to have occasional glitches. Toyota is taking care to remove the glitches by recalling the cars
The passage talks about a 'sub-assembly.' From the passage what can you infer about the term?
It means that it is a sub-standard part of the car.
It means that the braking system is a part of the overall car and the braking system itself is an assembly of parts particular to the system.
It means it is an assembly of sub-standard parts.
It means that anything that is to be recalled is called a sub-assembly.
'Sub' is a prefix which means beneath, under, subsidiary or secondary. The braking system forms a part of the car and the system itself is an assembly of parts that are unique to that system
Why is the word 'giant' used to describe Toyota?
Because Toyota makes large cars.
Because Toyota makes cars that can seat giants.
Because Toyota is one of the largest manufacturers of cars in the world.
Because Toyota does not make small cars.
Toyota is one of the largest manufacturers of cars in the world. The word 'giant' is used figuratively to give a sense of the size of the company
Why should only experts perform maintenance functions?
Because the customers pay for them.
Because the managing director thinks so.
Because the government says so.
Because the car is a high performance machine requiring deep knowledge about its functioning.
Lexus is claimed to be a high performance machine, so if any problem arises only someone with deep knowledge about the intricacies of the car would be able to understand the problem and find solutions
Why do you think maintenance of the braking system is an important aspect?
To ensure repeatability.
To improve profits for Toyota.
To keep the maintenance experts busy.
To please customers.
The braking system is used as often as you drive the car. Each time you want to stop or slow the car you have to use the brake system. Thus, repeatability is vital. In order to ensure repeatability, maintenance is an important aspect
Why do you think brake fluid is used?
Because the government says so.
Because customers want it.
Because the braking system is a hydraulic system.
Because it is very cheap.
The passage tells us that the automobile uses a hydraulic system, which means operating through a liquid to transmit pressure. Brake fluid helps to apply pressure to the brake pads on the wheels when the driver depresses the brake pedal
Why do you think damaged brake pads must be replaced?
Because it's fun.
Because 100 percent repeatability must be maintained.
To make them shiny.
Because the government orders it.
The brake pads are an essential component of the braking system. The brake pads must repeat their function every time they are put into use. For them to function properly they must not be damaged and hence damaged brake pads must be replaced
Do you think wheel alignment is important?
It is all right if one of the wheels is out of alignment.
Not more than one wheel can be out of alignment.
Alignment is not at all important.
The four wheels on a car must be aligned perfectly to give good performance.
Since the car has four wheels they must be aligned so that they are working together. Just imagine if the rear wheels are aligned at 90 degrees to the front wheels! Proper wheel alignment helps in improving all performance parameters
Which of the following can be performed by the driver and not necessarily by experts?
Maintaining tyre pressure.
Wheel alignment.
Changing brake pads.
Checking master cylinder.
Maintaining tyre pressure is a simple function that can be done by the driver. Tyre pressure can be adequately maintained by visiting the petrol station where it can be checked. The other three functions require the services of an expert
Author:  V T Narendra

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