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It is assumed all collisions within a system are elastic.

# Energy - Kinetic Theory

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The kinetic theory (sometimes referred to as the kinetic particle theory) of matter is used to explain many of the properties of solids, liquids and gasses. As you might imagine from the name of this theory, it is all about movement of particles. These particles are atoms and molecules, depending on the substance.

1.
What forces are assumed to exist between particles in a gas?
Attractive
Repulsive
Both attractive and repulsive
No force
The energy used to change a liquid into a gas breaks any forces between particles
2.
What does the kinetic particle theory describe?
Small numbers of small particles in constant random motion
Large numbers of small particles in constant random motion
Large numbers of small particles in an accelerating random motion
Large numbers of large particles in constant random motion
It relates the movement of the particles to the energy in a system
3.
Which experiment shows how kinetic theory works?
g by freefall
Brownian Motion
Pin-hole camera
Refraction of light
Brownian motion was first observed by the botanist Robert Brown who noticed the random movement of pollen grains in water but had no idea why this movement was taking place. We now can explain this as being caused by the constant random motion of water molecules colliding with the pollen grains. You may have seen it demonstrated at school using smoke
4.
It is assumed all collisions within a system are what?
Elastic
Inelastic
Particles do not collide
Only 50% of the particles in a system collide with other particles
Assuming all collisions are elastic allows us to make a good approximation of the kinetic energy of the system, as we are not concerned with the losses in kinetic energy that occur due to heat released during collisions in the real world
5.
The particles in the system are considered to have what mass relative to each other?
All particles have a different mass
All particles have the same mass
50% of particles have a mass twice as big as the other 50%
50% of particles have a mass one third as big as the other 50%
This is one of the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory
6.
How large is the number of particles within a system in kinetic theory?
Very large
Very small
300 particles
500,000 particles
The sample size needs to be large to be reliable
7.
As a substance changes state from a liquid to a gas, the amount of energy the particles have …
decreases
increases
stays the same
varies
During this change the temperature remains the same but a lot of heat energy needs to be added in order to make the particles move fast enough to escape from the liquid
8.
What does the kinetic energy of the particles in a system depend on?
Temperature of the system
How quickly the particles are accelerating
Charge of particle
None of the above
Particles at higher temperatures have a greater kinetic energy than when they were at a lower temperature
9.
The molecules in a system are assumed to obey which laws?
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Theory of General Relativity
Newton's Laws of Motion
The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Newton's Laws of Motion are used to solve kinetic theory problems as they are simple to use and offer a good approximation to the solutions needed for a system
10.
The particles in a system are always in what kind of motion?
Constant and random
Static
Slow and random
Fast and follow a curved path
The theoretical exception is at absolute zero. This is defined as the point where the constant and random motion of all particles stops. Scientists have come close to achieveing absolute zero but have never yet succeeded in getting there. Some very odd effects appear at these very low temperatures such as superfluidity and superconductivity
Author:  Martin Moore