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Infrared radiation is the main method of heat transfer in an electric toaster.

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Infrared radiation is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a spectrum of waves that also includes light. Infrared is also called thermal radiation and is one way in which heat is transferred. Infrared is emitted (given off), absorbed (taken in) and reflected by all objects. Hotter objects give out more infrared radiation than cooler ones. It has a wavelength of just a little longer than red light waves - you may have seen or done an experiment yourself using a thermometer, prism and light source. When the visible light is dispersed (split into the colors of the rainbow) by the prism, if you hold the thermometer just beyond where the red is, the reading will increase slightly.

1.
In an electric toaster, what methods of heat transfer cook the bread?
Conduction and convection only
Mainly convection but conduction has a part to play too
Cooking is done using red hot wires. These give out a lot of thermal radiation. This heats the surface of the bread and the heat is conducted into the bread, cooking the inside of the slice. There is a gap between the heating wires and the bread so convection will play little or no part as the hot air rises out of the toaster in a convection current
2.
Thermal radiation can only travel through which substances?
Solids
Liquids
Gases
Transparent and translucent substances
It can also travel through vacuums like space. It is very easily absorbed by opaque objects
3.
Thermal radiation travels at what speed?
Very slowly
Instantaneously
The speed of sound
The speed of light
It is a member of the electromagnetic spectrum
4.
In sunny countries, houses are often painted white. Why?
Painting them white lowers the U-value of the walls
White paint does not conduct heat
White is a good reflector of thermal radiation
The white paint reflects the light into the narrow streets which otherwise would be dark
Infrared radiation from the Sun heats up the outside of buildings. The heat then conducts through the walls and, if the sun shines on them all day, the inside of the buildings would become unbearably hot. Using white paint reflects the infrared radiation, keeping the walls cooler so less heat is conducted to the inside
5.
The inside container of a thermos bottle is silvered. Why?
To reduce heat loss by radiation
To completely prevent heat loss by radiation
To reduce heat loss by evaporation
To reduce heat loss by condensation
Remember, all objects give off thermal radiation so no surface will completely prevent heat loss by thermal radiation, but silver shiny surfaces radiate the least of all and therefore reduce heat loss from the flask
6.
Why are car radiators often painted matt black?
So that splashes of engine oil won't show up
To make them more efficient
To make the car more attractive to buyers
It is a legal requirement
The radiator is designed to reduce the temperature of the cooling water circulating round the engine. Painting it black increases the amount of infrared radiation it gives out, making it more efficient
7.
Which are the best emitters of thermal radiation?
Black, dull surfaces
Light colored dull surfaces
Black shiny surfaces
Light colored shiny surfaces
They are also the best absorbers of thermal radiation
8.
Put the following in order of best to worst reflectors of infrared radiation:

1. Red, dull
2. White, shiny
3. Black, dull
4. Red, shiny
1, 3, 4, 2
2, 4, 1, 3
1, 2, 3, 4
4, 1, 3, 2
Where the color is the same, shiny surfaces will reflect infrared better than dull ones. Dull surfaces scatter or absorb more of the incoming radiation
9.
Which one of the following emits the most infrared radiation?
1 kg of water at 95oC
1 kg of iron at 68oC
1 kg of your body at 37oC
1 kg of crude oil at 72oC
The hotter the object, the more infrared it emits
10.
Which of the following does not use infrared radiation?
Security lamps