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World War One Aftermath: 1919 - The Versailles Treaty
The formerly German port of Klaipëda was seized by Lithuania in the aftermath of World War One.

World War One Aftermath: 1919 - The Versailles Treaty

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The end of World War One was a drawn out affair. The signing of the Armistice at Compiegne was followed by protracted negotiations among the Allies at Versailles, before a treaty could be agreed. France took the hardest line against Germany, while the USA wanted more of a compromise peace. Britain usually took a position between these two extremes.

A clause in the eventual treaty blamed Germany for the outbreak of the war, and hence responsible for all the loss and damage caused to the Allies. What was this clause called?
Clause 231 (or the "War Guilt Clause")
The War Blame Clause
Admission of Responsibility
The Confession of Guilt Clause
The Germans bitterly resented this clause, and the punitive measures that followed as a result. They were prepared to accept some responsibility, but they detested what they called "victors' justice"
Germany's colonies were taken from her, and given to the victorious allies as spoils of victory, although they were under the supervision of the League of Nations in Geneva as mandates. Which of the Western Allies showed no interest in acquiring any of Germany's former African colonies?
Great Britain
The United States of America
Mandates did not involve outright control. The mandatory powers were expected to lead their territories to eventual independence after a period of development
The Treaty disarmed Germany, so that she could never again embark on a major war. Which aspect of the armed forces was totally forbidden?
The German navy
Special forces organized as part of the army
The German air force
Enlistment of 100,000 men to serve in the army for 12 years before demobilization
The Allies - especially France and Belgium - were determined that Germany could never embark on another war. Such armed forces as she still possessed were intended for internal law and order enforcement only
The Allies were determined that Austria and Germany should be forbidden to unite in one state. What German name was given to such a union?
Austrians were German-speakers, and Austria itself was truncated following the Treaty of St. Germain, whereby she lost almost all of her non-German population. So in some ways it made sense to unite the two German-speaking powers. But the Allies were not interested in increasing German territory - rather they were looking to reduce it!
The Reparations Commission reported in May 1921 that Germany could and should pay a huge sum to cover the loss and damage caused in the Great War. What was the eventual bill?
£5 billion
£6.6 billion
£1.9 billion
£12.3 billion
The Reparations Commission had a difficult task. How much should Germany have to pay? And how much would she be able to pay?
Which German province was granted to France for a period of 15 years, after which its people would vote to decide to which state they should belong? France intended to exploit its coal and iron ore assets while she could.
Upper Silesia
The Ruhr
The Saarland
France intended to make the most of the opportunity to milk this region of its industrial resources, knowing that it would inevitably vote to return to Germany
When the Allies came to consider the border area between Denmark and Germany, they decided initially to divide the area into two vertical parts. How did they then resolve the problem of where each part should belong to?
Two separate plebiscites (referenda) were held
The northern part was automatically given to Denmark and the southern part to Germany
A plebiscite was held in the north, while the south remained part of Germany
The northern part was ceded to Denmark, while the south held a plebiscite
Plebiscites were a way of determining the wishes of the local population. However they could present difficulties - especially if one or more ethnic groups were mixed within a given area
Lithuania seized the German port of Memel on the Baltic, which was intended to have international control. What name did Lithuania give to its new acquisition?
Lithuania was the southernmost of the three Baltic States, now independent as a result of Russia's weakness and Germany's defeat. She seized Memel (the German name of the city), the port that she needed for trade
Danzig, on the Baltic coast, posed a problem for the Versailles negotiators. What decision was made about this German port with a Polish hinterland?
It remained part of Germany, albeit separated from the rest of Germany by the Polish Corridor
It was given to Poland, to afford the revived Polish state access to the sea
It became a Free City under League of Nations control
It became an independent state, supervised by France and Britain
The Allies were keen to give Poland access to the sea, but they were also anxious to give rights to the German population of the port, and to grant road and rail access to it from the west
Which of the major allies insisted that all signatories to the treaty should have to join his brainchild, the League of Nations?
Georges Clemenceau
Vittorio Orlando
Woodrow Wilson
David Lloyd George
The League of Nations was intended to be the guardian of the terms of the peace treaties so all nations should belong - except for the Central Powers (Germany, etc.)
Author:  Edward Towne

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