Mass and gravity cause a backpack full of books to feel heavy when you lift it.

# Forces 01

In KS2 children will spend a good deal of time looking at forces such as air resistance, gravity, upthrust and friction. This is the first of three Science quizzes looking at the different types, and the effects, of forces.

A force is the push and pull that causes objects to undergo change. Everything in existence is affected by forces all of the time - whether it's the pull of gravity, the drag of air resistance and friction, or the push of upthrust. It's amazing that we cannot see forces, despite them being everywhere. So how do we know they exist? Well, we can see the effects they have, like the Earth orbiting the Sun because of the force of gravity, or a needle in a compass moving due to the force of magnetism

Do you know how water resistance and upthrust affect a boat on water? Or how gravity and friction slow a moving car? Check your scientific understanding by trying this first Forces quiz.

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1. In which direction does gravity exert force (as experienced by people or objects on Earth)?
Gravity pulls all objects (on the Earth's surface or in its atmosphere) down towards the centre of the Earth - the Earth's gravity even keeps the Moon in orbit because it pulls the Moon towards its centre (otherwise the Moon would travel in a straight line out into space)
2. In a diagram, a force is represented by what?
When labelling a diagram, you use arrows to show the direction of a force
3. Which of the following is not a force?
Electricity is a type of energy
4. Which of the following would you use when measuring force?
Another name for a forcemeter is a Newtonmeter
5. Forces can cause objects to change what?
Forces can speed things up and slow them down, push or pull them in a new direction, or squash and stretch them!
6. If you roll a ball across the carpet, which forces will cause it to slow down and then stop?
Gravity pulls the ball against the carpet. The ball rubs against the carpet, which is friction, and the air around the ball also rubs against it
7. What causes a backpack full of books to feel heavy when you lift it?
The force of gravity acting on mass (the amount of matter in an object) is called weight - which is, of course, what makes an object feel heavy
8. Which unit should be used to measure mass (the amount of matter an object contains)?
Although weight is often given in kilograms and grams, this measurement really refers to mass. Weight is dependent on gravity and can change if the force of gravity is different (you wouldn't weigh the same on the Moon as you do on Earth, because the Moon has less gravity)
9. What are forces measured in?
The newton is named after the famous scientist Isaac Newton who you may have heard of
10. What is a force?
A force is always exerted either as a push or a pull

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