Earthquakes and Volcanoes 02
This photo shows a geyser which is heated underground water that rises to the surface under extreme pressure.

Earthquakes and Volcanoes 02

This is our second KS3 Geography quiz on earthquakes and volcanoes. Earthquakes are measured with a seismometer which measures their magnitude. There are earthquakes every few days in the UK, but most are very small, with a magnitude of 2 or less. A magnitude of 3 or lower is rarely noticed by anyone and only about 20 per year are felt by people. In other parts of the world, where the Earth's plates are moving relative to each other, much larger earthquakes can happen. An earthquake with a magnitude of 7 can cause serious damage over large areas. A magnitude 9 earthquake is extremely destructive.

One of the pieces of evidence that was used to discover that the Earth's crust was broken into moving plates was first suggested at the start of the twentieth century. A German scientist named Alfred Wegener noticed that the coastlines and some rock formations of south America and Africa seemed to match together reasonably well. This suggested to him that the two continents had once been joined together. Further evidence comes from volcanoes. When the world's active volcanoes are marked on a map, they seem to appear only in narrow, well-defined areas. We now know that this is where the crustal plates meet.

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  1. How can you tell that South America and Africa were once joined?
    They split apart as the earth's plates moved, forming the Atlantic Ocean
  2. Mauna Loa is a volcano in which American state?
    Hawaii has a national park called 'Volcanoes'
  3. What form does the mantle take?
    Currents in the mantle are thought to be what move the crustal plates
  4. A volcano not expected to erupt again is called what?
    All the volcanoes in the British Isles are extinct. Phew!!
  5. Heated underground water rising to the surface under huge pressure is a...?
    Probably the best known geyser is 'Old Faithful' which is in Yellowstone National Park in the USA
  6. Which layer is immediately below the earth's crust?
    The mantle is a much thicker layer than the crust
  7. Earthquakes are most likely to happen where?
    The edges of plates are very unstable areas - rocks don't move past each other very easily!
  8. Which ocean has a ring of earthquakes and volcanoes around its edge?
    Known as the 'Pacific Ring of Fire'
  9. An earthquake can be measured on what scale?
    At the time of writing this quiz, the world's strongest recorded earthquake was magnitude 9.5. It occured in the Pacific Ocean near Chile in 1960
  10. Large rocks thrown from a volcano have what name?
    They can be thrown hundreds of feet in the air and are very dangerous to people and buildings near to an eruption

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