Earthquakes and Volcanoes 03
Test yourself on earthquakes and volcanoes.

Earthquakes and Volcanoes 03

This third KS3 Geography quiz takes a final look at earthquakes and volcanoes. Volcanoes come in many different shapes and sizes. Some of them are steep-sided and conical. Others have a flatter and wider profile. It all depends on the type of lava that they erupt. Volcanoes that erupt runny lavas form the flatter and wider type. These are called shield volcanoes.

Good examples of shield volcanoes are the ones that make up the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Volcanoes with very thick lava form the type with the steeper sides. These also tend to have explosive eruptions that send pyroclastic flows racing down from the top. These are very destructive. A good example of this type is Mount St. Helens in the USA.

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Most volcanoes occur at the edges of the tectonic plates (places known as plate boundaries). There are three types of plate boundary - constructive, conservative and destructive. As well as volcanoes, you get earthquakes at plate boundaries. As the plates move, the rocks get stuck together but the plates continue to move. When the pressure builds up to a certain level, the rocks that are stuck will break and that part of the plate will suddenly move a distance of several metres. This releases a lot of energy and the point at which it happens is called the focus of the earthquake.

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  1. What is the underground point where an earthquake starts?
    The seismic waves travel outwards from the focus in all directions. That is why it is possible to detect an earthquake that has happened on the other side of the world
  2. Which volcanoes are formed from runny lava and have gently sloping sides?
    Mauna Loa in Hawaii is an excellent example
  3. The volcano that erupted in Washington state in 1980 was Mount what?
    It was a huge eruption - the mountain literally blew its top. After the eruption had stopped, the mountain was 400 m lower and had a crater at the top that was 2 - 3 km wide and about 700 m deep
  4. What word describes the plates of the earth's crust?
    Movement of plates causes 'quakes and eruptions
  5. Which is not a type of plate boundary?
    You don't usually get volcanoes at conservative plate boundaries
  6. Volcanoes that have erupted recently are called what?
    The closest active volcanoes to the UK are in Italy and in Iceland
  7. An earthquake sends out what type of waves?
    Seismic is Greek for 'shake'
  8. Earthquakes on the seabed can cause what?
    They are huge tidal waves - tsunami means 'harbour wave' in Japanese
  9. What kind of volcanic 'flow' includes hot gas, ash and lava?
    A cloud of hot ash from an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD79 destroyed the town of Pompeii. The ash was so fine that the bodies of the victims were very well preserved
  10. Where the edges of plates meet is called what?
    Also known as a plate margin

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