The Industrial Revolution 03
Sheffield is most associated with steel making, particularly cutlery.

The Industrial Revolution 03

This KS3 History quiz asks questions about the Industrial Revolution. Without steam engines and iron, the Industrial Revolution may not have happened. Iron production was only carried out on a small scale before the eighteenth century. It increased by about 10 times between 1750 and 1830 and, without iron, the steam engine could not have been made. Iron production was on a small scale before Abraham Darby invented a method of extracting iron using coke. The coke replaced charcoal as a fuel.

Coke was initially cheaper than charcoal and it overcame the problems of a lack of wood to produce charcoal locally. The iron that was produced was not particularly pure and was called cast iron. Cast Iron was brittle but strong enough to make many machine parts and building materials like girders and columns. Eventually, during the middle of the nineteenth century, Henry Bessemer discovered a way of making steel, a much less brittle, stronger and more useful material than cast iron and wrought iron. This opened up the way for some incredible pieces of engineering.

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  1. Cast iron that could be shaped by bending or hammering was called what?
    Stronger than cast iron - used for tools and machines but it was only made in small quantities and was therefore very expensive
  2. James Watt improved whose steam engine in the 1760's?
    Newcomen's was the first really practical working steam engine
  3. Iron and steel making required what form of coal?
    This was made by heating coal in the absence of air
  4. Which factory owner financed James Watt's work?
    He was a Birmingham businessman
  5. Edmund Cartwright's invention caused unemployment for which workers?
    His power loom was driven by steam engines
  6. Who usually crawled under a jammed machine?
    Very dangerous - machines were often still running
  7. In the 1850's who developed a steelmaking process?
    Steel was less brittle than wrought iron
  8. Which of the following cities is most associated with steel making?
    Especially stainless steel, particularly cutlery
  9. In the early 18th century, who began making cast iron?
    He used coke instead of charcoal
  10. Those who smashed factory machinery were called what?
    They were mainly unemployed skilled workers who were concerned about the loss of skills within the textile industry

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