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50 Essential Facts About Geography

The 50 facts that you MUST know on your way to becoming a geography expert!

Tokyo is the largest city in the world with a population over 37 millionCities
La Rinoconada in Peru is the highest city, with an elevation of 5100 m
Jericho is the lowest city in the world. It's 258 m below sea level
Reykjavik in Iceland is the world's northernmost capital city
Puerto Williams in Chile is the southernmost permanently inhabited place
The largest desert is in Antarctica with an area of 5.5 million square milesDeserts
Deserts cover one-third of earth's land surface
120,000 square km of land turn to desert every year due to climate change 
In 6 hours deserts get more energy from the sun than humans use in a year
Death Valley is the hottest desert. Temperatures can reach 56.7⁰C
Trees in forests communicate with each other through a fungal networkForests
Not all rainforests are tropical. There are some rainforests in the UK
The largest UK forest is Galloway Forest, with an area of 770 square km
Almost half of all bluebells in the world are found in the UK's forests
Forests are home to 80% of the world's terrestrial biodiversity.
Stalactites are created by the continuous dripping of mineral rich waterCaves
Stalagmites are created as the water droplets fall to the cave floor
The longest cave system is Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA, at 651.8 km
The deepest known cave is Krubera Cave in Georgia, at 2,197 m
Altamira caves in Spain contain 20,000-year-old prehistoric paintings
Magma is liquid rock inside a volcano. Lava is liquid rock outsideVolcanoes
The largest volcano on earth is Mauna Loa on Hawai'i. It's 17,000 m tall
There are approximately 1,900 volcanoes on Earth. Most in the "Ring of Fire"
When Krakatau erupted it released the energy of 15,000 nuclear bombs
Lava from a volcano can reach 1,250°C
Thirty of the world’s highest mountains are in the HimalayasMountains
The longest mountain range in the world is the Andes in South America
Any land mass 1,000 feet above the surrounding area is a mountain
There’s a mountain in Australia called Mount Disappointment
There are thought to be 100,000 uncharted mountains under the sea
71 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceanOceans
The Pacific is the largest ocean, making up over a third of the planet's surface
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge beneath the Atlantic is Earth's longest mountain range
The deepest part of the oceans is the Mariana Trench at almost 11 km deep
The Arctic Ocean around the North Pole is the smallest and shallowest ocean
The Nile is the longest river. It is over 6,650 km longFresh water
Second longest is the Amazon at 6,575 km. It is the largest river by volume
The Caspian Sea is actually a lake. It's the world's largest inland body of water
The Great Lakes in North America hold 21% of the worlds surface fresh water
The Congo is the deepest river. In places it is 230 m deep 
Earthquakes are vibrations of Earth's crust caused by movement of its platesEarthquakes
The magnitude of an earthquake is measured on the Richter scale from 0-10
There are millions of minor earthquakes every year
The world’s deadliest earthquake killed 830,000 people in China in 1556
In 2010 an earthquake in Chile moved the city of Concepción 3 m to the west
Russia is the largest country, with an area of 6.6 million square milesCountries
Istanbul is the only city in the world that is spread across two continents
Mongolia has the lowest population density with 4 people per square mile
South Sudan is the world's youngest country. It was founded in 2011
Monaco is the most densely populated country with 26,000 people per km²

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