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50 Essential Facts About History

The 50 facts that you MUST know on your way to becoming a history expert!

The first farms appear when plants are domesticated (c. 11,000 BCE)Ancient History 
Settlement of the first city, Uruk in Mesopotamia (c. 4,500 BCE)
The wheel invented in Eastern Europe/Middle East (c. 3,500 BCE)
Cuneiform, the first writing, invented in Mesopotamia (c. 3,200 BCE)
The Great Pyramid of Giza built for Pharaoh Khufu (c. 2,560 BCE)
First Olympic Games held in Ancient Greece (776 BCE)Classical Antiquity
Rome founded (753 BCE)
The life of the Buddha (c. 563-483 BCE in India)
Alexander the Great, conqueror of the largest empire yet (356-323 BCE)
Julius Caesar creates the Julian calendar (45 BCE)
Rome falls to Germanic tribes (476 CE)Dark Ages
Life of Mohammed, founder of Islam (571-632 CE)
Charlemagne crowned as the first Holy Roman Emperor (800 CE)
Gunpowder first used as a weapon in China (904 CE)
Viking explorers first colonise North America (c. 986 CE)
Battle of Hastings and Norman Conquest (begins 1066)Middle Ages
The first university is founded in Bologna, Italy (1088 )
Life of Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire (1162-1227)
King John forced by his barons to sign the Magna Charta (1215)
The Black Death kills one-third of the European population (1347-1348)
Christopher Columbus arrives in the Americas (1492)Early Modern
First slaves taken from Africa to the Americas (1502)
Michelangelo paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome (1512)
Protestant Reformation begins with Martin Luthor's 95 Theses (1517)
Magellan’s Expedition Is the first to circumnavigates the globe (1522)
Galileo Galilei announces discoveries made with his telescope (1610)
Taj Mahal built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (1653)
Steam engine invented by Edward Somerset (1663)
Isaac Newton publishes his Principia Mathematica (1687)
Beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain (1733)
The American Revolution (1775-1783)Late Modern
The French Revolution (1789-1799)
Invention of the telegraph (1832)
Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species (1859)
Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone (1876)
Invention of radio (1879)
Invention of the aeroplane (1903)
Albert Einstein publishes his Special Theory of Relativity (1905)
World War I (1914-1918)
The invention of television (1925)
The Great Depression after US Stock Market crash (1929-1939)Contemporary History
World War II (1939-1945)
United Nations formed (1945)
India becomes independent from the UK (1947)
Double helical structure of DNA discovered (1953)
Russian, Yuri Gagarin, becomes the first man in space (1961)
U.S. President John F. Kennedy is assassinated (1963)
The World Wide Web invented by Tim Berners-Lee (1989)
The Cold War ends with the dissolution of the Soviet Union (1991)
Terrorists attack and destroy the World Trade Towers (2001)

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