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50 Essential Facts for KS3 Science

The 50 facts that you MUST know on your way to becoming a science expert!

Aluminium is the most abundant metal in Earth's crustMetals
Copper is used for pipes because it does not react much with water
Alloys are made of at least 2 elements, only 1 has to be a metal
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity
Bromine and mercury are the only liquid metals at room temperature
One of the flexor muscles for the elbow is the bicepsBody Systems
The trachea is kept open by rings made from cartilage
A fertilised egg that starts to divide is called a morula
The small intestine in an adult is up to 7 metres long
There are 4 chambers in our hearts: 2 atria and 2 ventricles
So far we have discovered 118 elementsElements
The horizontal rows in the Periodic table are called the periods
About three-quarters of all elements are metals
An element is a substance that is made up of only one kind of atom
Francium, Polonium and Germanium are named after countries
A compound contains 2 or more elements chemically joined together Compounds
Silicon dioxide is the most abundant. It makes up 59% of Earth's crust
There are 4 types of compound: molecular, salt, complex and intermetallic
Salts are compounds whose atoms are held together with ionic bonds
Mixtures are not compounds. They are made from substances, not elements
Hibernation is an adaptation to the cold and lack of food in winterAdaptation
Camels have many adaptations to desert life besides their humps
Deciduous trees lose their leaves in winter in order to save water
The dark circles round meerkats' eyes act like sunglasses in bright light
Some fish in Antarctic waters have "antifreeze" proteins in their blood
Coal stores chemical energy from the remains of plants and treesEnergy
The source of most of the energy resources on Earth is the sun
When a candle burns chemical energy is converted to heat and light
Energy is measured in joules, named after physicist J.P. Joule
Energy can be changed from one form into another. It cannot be created
DNA is an abbreviation for “deoxyribonucleic acid”Classification
The 5 kingdoms of organism are: animal, plant, fungi, protista and monera
Every animal that has a skeleton inside its body is a vertebrate
Humans are Homo sapiens, which means “wise man” in Latin
There are 9 different phyla of invertebrates including sponges and worms
Forces are measured in newtons, named after physicist Sir Isaac NewtonForces
Forces can change the shape, speed or direction of movement of objects
Stationary objects experience balanced forces of equal strength
There are 4 fundamental forces that govern everything in the universe
The weight of something is the amount of force gravity has on it
Our stomachs produce strong hydrochloric acid Acids & Alkalis
The pH scale is a measure of acidity or alkalinity from 0 to 14
As they separate into ions in water, both acids and alkalis conduct electricity
Strong acids and bases are both corrosive
Vinegar is a common acid. Soapy water is a common alkali
The electromagnetic force acts on anything that has an electric chargeElectromagnetism
The link between electricity and magnets was discovered in 1820
A transformer uses electromagnetism to transfer power between two circuits
The most common magnetic material is steel, an alloy of iron and carbon
The Earth acts like a huge magnet and its magnetic field extends into space

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