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Biology - Cloning
Spider plants can reproduce asexually.

Biology - Cloning

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Genetic variation and its control is one of the topics studied in high school science. This quiz looks at sexual and asexual reproduction and cloning.

What is cloning?
Making a batch of new plants that show variation
Making new animals that have characteristics different to the parents
Asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Cloning describes a number of different asexual reproduction methods that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of an organism
Which of the following is not true about plant tissue culture?
It is used to produce plants in sterile conditions, reducing the chances of transmitting diseases and pests
It is used to produce plants whose seeds have a low chance of germinating
It is used to create new varieties of flowering plants
It is used to produce exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers or fruits
All of the plants produced by tissue culture are genetically the same as their parent plant and each other. Any variation will be environmental
Why does asexual reproduction produce genetically identical offspring?
Because there is no fusion of gamete
Because two identical gametes are fused
Because two parents are needed
Because it is another term for genetic engineering
Only one individual is needed as the parent so there is no mixing of genetic information, therefore no genetic variation in the offspring
As well as leaves, spider plants grow long branches with lots of plantlets (miniature spider plants) attached. What is the name of this form of asexual reproduction?
Tubers and rhizomes grow underground and, most of the time, you don't see them unless you dig the plant up. Runners, or stolons, grow above ground and you can easily see them. Mexican hat plants clone themselves by growing plantlets around the edges of their leaves. These drop off and grow in the soil around the original plant
During tissue culture, why are plant cells washed in antiseptic before placing them into the culture medium?
To ensure that no microorganisms grow on the culture medium and new plants
To destroy any unwanted plant cells, leaving only the cells for cloning
To prevent viruses from getting into the plant cells
In case any of the plant cells have cuts or bruises on them
The usual culture medium is agar gel which is extremely good food for bacteria and fungi so they need to be killed off first
Why are plants easier to clone than animals?
They are smaller
They are bigger
Plant cells can differentiate into different cell types
They contain chlorophyll which is a good cloning medium
Plant cells are amazing. Many of them have the ability to regenerate a whole plant
When cloning animals from adult cells, which part of the cells is involved?
The cell membrane
The cell nucleus
The cytoplasm
The vacuole
The nucleus from any cell of the animal to be cloned is used to replace the nucleus of an egg cell from a different animal
When cloning animals from adult cells, what must one do to the egg cell to make it start to grow?
Give it a small electric shock
Nothing, it will start growing of its own accord
Drop it in salty water
Hit it
The egg cell has to be prompted to start growing as it has not been fertilized
When cloning mammals from adult cells, after the nucleus has been replaced and growth has started, where must the egg cell be placed so the clone can develop?
In a test tube with a suitable 'in vitro' solution
On agar in a Petri dish
In the uterus of an adult female of the same type of animal
In the uterus of an adult female of a different type of animal
When it has started to grow, the egg cell will soon become an embryo. The only place that a mammal embryo can develop properly is inside the uterus (womb) of a female of the same type of animal
Another way of cloning animals is by carrying out an embryo transplant. The growing cells of the embryo taken from a pregnant animal can be separated and grown as genetically similar individuals. But at what stage can this be done?
When the embryo is nearly fully developed
When the embryo is half way through its development
When the embryo is growing but before the cells have become specialized
Immediately after fertilization of the egg
After fertilization, the egg cell begins to grow, dividing repeatedly to form a ball of new cells. These are stem cells which have the ability to form any cell in the body. When the cells have started to differentiate becoming limbs and other organs, it is too late to clone using this method
Author:  Kev Woodward

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