Reflexes
If your hand touches a hot object the reflex response is to move it away very quickly!

Reflexes

This Biology quiz is called 'Reflexes' and it has been written by teachers to help you if you are studying the subject at middle school. Playing educational quizzes is a fabulous way to learn if you are in the 6th, 7th or 8th grade - aged 11 to 14.

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The nervous system allows an organism to react to its surroundings and coordinate its behavior, improving its chances of survival. This middle school Biology quiz takes a closer look at reflexes - the most primitive, yet fundamental, automatic response mechanism. Our reflexes allow us to take action without thinking, but how? Well, the mechanism works like this - in a reflex reaction, a stimulus is received by receptors and an automatic, rapid response is generated by the central nervous system without the involvement of the brain.

In situations where there is a danger to the body, reflex actions can save precious fractions of a second. This is achieved through what is termed a reflex arc. A reflex arc begins with a receptor. This passes a signal to a sensory neuron that connects to the spinal cord. In the spinal cord, a relay neuron sends the signal directly to a motor neuron. The motor neuron connects to an effector which is generally a muscle so that the body can respond. The relay neuron also sends a signal to the brain so that you are aware of what is happening.

Two common examples of reflex actions are taking your hand away from something sharp and the iris of an eye changing the size of the pupil. In the first example, receptors detect the sharp object cutting into the skin. The signal travels rapidly through a reflex arc and the part of the body touching the sharp object (e.g. your hand if you accidentally get hold of a rose bush or bramble) rapidly releases the object or moves the body away. Fractions of a second saved here could be crucial - just imagine if the sharp object is entering the body near to one of your main arteries ...

In the second example above, too much light entering the eye could seriously damage it, so it is important for any animal to be able to limit the amount of light entering. This is done using the colored muscle called the iris. Receptors in the eye are the starting point for a reflex arc that relaxes or contracts the iris, regulating the size of the pupil and therefore controlling the amount of light reaching the easily damaged light receptors of the retina.

Fast reflexes can make all the difference, but don't worry - you wont need them to play this quiz on our automatic response mechanism!

1.
What is the name for the connection between two nerve cells?
Junction
Synapse
Gap
Transmitter
The nerve impulse is usually transmitted from neuron to neuron by a chemical
2.
What is the correct order of the reflex arc?
Motor - relay - sensory
Sensory - motor - relay
Sensory - relay - motor
Relay - sensory - motor
The brain is not involved, although the relay neuron does send a message to the brain so that the animal is aware of what is happening
3.
Which of the following is an example of an effector?
The heart
The liver
The kidneys
The muscles
Effectors are the output organs for reflexes and they include both muscles and glands
4.
The first cell in the reflex is which type of neuron?
Motor
Relay
Sensory
Intermediate
These detect stimuli
5.
Which of the following is not true of reflexes?
Faster than hormonal responses
Brain not involved
Act for a short time
Brain involved
Although there is a connection to the brain, the nerve impulses that cause the reflex pass only through the central nervous system. Going through the brain would slow things down
6.
Your hand touches a hot object. What is the reflex response?
To grab hold of the object
To throw the object
To move the hand away swiftly
To think about what to do
Reflexes are very fast and do not involve thinking. This protects the organism from dangers such as a hot object
7.
The synapse between the sensory and relay neurones is within which part of the body?
The brain
The heart
The spinal cord
The muscles
The bundle of neurons in the spinal cord is referred to as the central nervous system
8.
A reflex arc consists of a chain of which type of cells?
Brain
Neurons
Muscle
Liver
Nerve cells are called neurons (sometimes spelled with an 'e' as neurones)
9.
If the effector is a gland, what would the response be?
A release of blood
The release of a hormone
A muscle contraction
A muscle expansion
Glands are part of the endocrine system and are where hormones are produced
10.
The last cell in the reflex is which type of neuron?
Motor
Sensory
Intermediate
Relay
Also called an effector as it makes the body do something
Author:  Donna Maria Davidson

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