*This Biology quiz is called 'Causal or Association Relationship of Variables' and it has been written by teachers to help you if you are studying the subject at middle school. Playing educational quizzes is a fabulous way to learn if you are in the 6th, 7th or 8th grade - aged 11 to 14.*

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Variables are necessary parts of any experiment. In this middle school Biology quiz we examine both the association relationship (e.g. tall people tend to be heavier, so height and weight are associated) and the causal relationship (e.g. cold temperatures extend food's shelf life, therefore cold temperatures are a cause of extended shelf life) of variables.

1.

How many different types of variables are there?

One

Two

Three

Four

Dependent, independent and control

2.

Causal implies that...

X caused Y to increase

An unknown factor caused Y to increase

Z was involved

Other factors were involved

When a correlation is spotted, it is then time to see if scientific theory can be used to explain it. If it can't then the correlation may not be causal. Scientists working at the 'cutting edge' of their subject may have to develop new theories to explain the correlation. This is often how new discoveries are made

3.

The key independent variable is...

the factor we change

the factor we keep the same

the factor we measure

the factor we ignore

The key independent variable is the factor we are studying in our investigation and is the basis for our hypothesis

4.

Which is the key independent variable of the hypothesis "*I think that as the temperature increases, the rate of bubbles given off will increase due to the increased number of collisions of particles.*"?

Collisions

Number of bubbles

Rate

Temperature

In this experiment you would be changing the temperature and observing the number of bubbles given off. The variable that you will be changing is the independent variable

5.

Directly proportional means that...

as X increases, Y increases in proportion giving a straight line graph

as X increases, Y decreases

as X increases, Y increases a small amount

As X increases, Y increases greatly

On a scatter graph, if the line of best fit is straight, you have a relationship where the dependent variable is directly proportional to the independent variable. In other words, whenever you double variable X, variable Y will double too

6.

What is an independent variable in a scientific experiment?

A factor which never changes

A factor which changes

A factor whose values are changed or selected by the investigator

A factor which must always be kept the same

It can also be referred to as the **key** variable

7.

An association is not the same thing as a causal relationship because...

causal means one thing has definitely influenced the outcome

causal means other factors could have caused the outcome

association means they are connected by lots of factors

association is not relevant

Sometimes the correlation is associative because one of the control variables has not been identified and controlled

8.

What is the dependent variable in the prediction "*I think that as the pH increases, the number of bubbles given off will decrease."*?

pH

Decrease

Increase

Number of bubbles

The dependent variable is the one you **measure** in the experiment

9.

As X increases, Y increases demonstrates a...

negative correlation

positive correlation

causal relationship

association relationship

We have no way of knowing if X caused Y to increase, but if X increased and Y also increased, there is a positive correlation

10.

The dependent variable is...

the factor we change

the factor we control

the factor we measure

the X factor

It is called this because its values *depend* on the values chosen for the independent variable

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