Vocabulary - Understanding Words, Sentences and Punctuations (Part 1)

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Vocabulary - Understanding Words, Sentences and Punctuations (Part 1)

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Understanding Words, Sentences and Punctuations will test you on the rules of English. The English language (and all languages) is filled with rules regarding types of word (nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, contractions, pronouns, prepositions, possessive pronouns, synonyms, antonyms and the like), sentence structures (simple, compound, complex and compound-complex) and punctuation marks (period, question mark, exclamation point, colons, semicolons, commas, quotation marks and the like) and their correct usage and their placements in writing.

In order to follow the rules correctly, it is important that you know and understand the meanings and intentions of each word, sentence and punctuation mark.

1.
What is an idiom?
A word that sounds like another word but has a different meaning.
A word or phrase that means the same thing.
A word or phrase that says one thing but means something else.
A word that connects two independent sentences together.
An idiom is a word or phrase that says one thing but means something else. For example: “Break a leg tonight!” does not literally mean that a person is to break their leg. Rather, it is a way of saying “good luck.” Answer (c) shows the correct meaning of idiom.
2.
What is a compound sentence?
A combination of the compound sentence having two or more independent subjects or clauses and where you have at least one independent clause and one dependent clause linked to it.
A sentence made up of three parts - a subject, a verb and an object.
When an independent clause is linked to a dependent clause.
When two or more independent subjects or clauses are linked together by a conjunction.
A compound sentence is where you have two or more independent subjects or clauses that are linked together by a conjunction. For example: “Mr. Smith bought a new truck but Mrs. Smith bought a new car.” Both sections of this sentence, i.e., “Mr. Smith bought a new truck” and “Mrs. Smith bought a new car” are independent clauses and can stand on their own. However, the two sentences are linked by the conjunction “but.” The correct meaning of a compound sentence is, therefore, Answer (d).
3.
What is an interrogative sentence?
A sentence that expresses strong emotions or excitement.
A sentence that makes a statement.
A sentence that gives direction or a command.
A sentence that asks a question.
An interrogative sentence is one that asks a question and ends the sentence with a question mark. For example: “Where did you buy that coat?” The correct answer is, therefore, Answer (d).
4.
What is a synonym?
The proper name given to a noun.
Two words that have opposite meanings.
Words that sound alike.
Two words that mean the same or nearly the same thing.
A synonym refers to two words that have the same or nearly the same meaning. For example: “She wore a very pretty dress.” This could also be written as: “She wore a beautiful dress.” The two words “pretty” and “beautiful” are nearly the same thing. The correct meaning is Answer (d).
5.
What is an apostrophe?
A mark known as an exclamation point at the end of a sentence to show excitement or strong emotions.
A small mark that is used to show possession or with a contraction to show where a letter or letters are missing.
A mark used to enclose quoted words, names of books, magazines, newspapers and TV shows.
A mark used to show where a pause in speaking would take place.
An apostrophe is a small mark (’) used to show possession, such as in “Marthas crayons,” or used with a contraction to show where a letter or letters are missing, such as in “Dont get this wrong.” The apostrophe replaces the “o” in the two words “do” and “not” and joins the words together. Answer (b) provides the correct meaning for the apostrophe.
6.
What is a noun?
A noun is a person, place or thing.
A noun is a word that shows action.
A noun is a word that is compared to another noun.
A noun is a word that imitates a sound.
A noun defines a person, place or thing. There are two kinds of nouns: common (girl, boy, dog, cat, house, boat) and proper (Jane, Mark, Target, New Orleans High School). The correct meaning is Answer (a).
7.
What is a complex sentence?
When an independent clause is linked to a dependent clause.
A sentence made up of three parts - a subject, a verb and an object.
When two or more independent subjects or clauses are linked together by a conjunction.
A combination of the compound sentence having two or more independent subjects or clauses and where you have at least one independent clause and one dependent clause linked to it.
A complex sentence is when you have an independent clause linked to a dependent clause. For example: “Marcy arrived when Betty left.” “Marcy arrived” is an independent clause because it can stand on its own as a complete sentence. However, “when Betty left” is a dependent clause as it cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence. The correct meaning for a complex sentence is Answer (a).
8.
What is a preposition?
A word that is used to modify a verb.
A word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence.
A word that describes or identifies or further defines a noun or pronoun.
A word that replaces one or more nouns.
A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. For example: “Jackie placed her bag on the table.” The word “on” is the preposition as it shows us the relationship between the “bag” and the “table.” Answer (b) is the correct meaning.
9.
What is an imperative sentence?
A sentence that makes a statement.
A sentence that expresses strong emotions or excitement.
A sentence that gives direction or a command.
A sentence that asks a question.
An imperative sentence is a sentence that gives direction or a command. For example: “Do not jump on the bed.” Imperative sentences end with a period. Answer (c) gives the correct meaning for an imperative sentence.
10.
What is a verb?
A word that replaces a one or more nouns.
A word that shows an action.
Words that are spelled the same but in context have a different meaning.
A word that describes or identifies or further defines a noun or pronoun.
A verb is a word that shows an action that is either currently taking place, took place in the past or will take place in the future. For example: “Billy likes to jump on the bed.” Answer (b) is the correct meaning of a verb.
Author:  Christine G. Broome

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