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Temperate Forests
Conifers have become symbolic of life in the cold winter as the Christmas tree.

Temperate Forests

This Geography quiz is called 'Temperate Forests' and it has been written by teachers to help you if you are studying the subject at middle school. Playing educational quizzes is a fabulous way to learn if you are in the 6th, 7th or 8th grade - aged 11 to 14.

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Temperate climates are found in the milder places between the tropics and the polar regions. Without the extremes of temperature found in the tropics and at the poles, the temperate regions are considered moderate and their seasons show less extreme changes. The UK is in this temperate region and is heavily influenced by the maritime climate as the North Atlantic Current brings warmer waters up from the south.

Broadleaf trees have large leaves that have adapted to absorb the maximum amount of sunlight possible. This large size means that they are vulnerable to winter winds and freezing conditions. Some broadleaf trees lose their leaves in the winter. What is this type of forest known as?
Deciduous trees take back the nutrients from their leaves each autumn, turning them brown. The leaves are then lost to form a deep leaf litter on the forest floor
What is a pioneer species?
The first species to colonize a previously disturbed or disrupted ecosystem, beginning the chain of succession
The final species to finish off a chain of succession
A species that takes root on a beach or coastline
The species that carries on after an emergent species has taken hold after a fire or other clearance
Pioneer species allow the chain of succesion to begin. Dependant on the situation, various species may become pioneer species
Why are coniferous forests described as being evergreen?
The bark and branches are green so once they lose their leaves they still seem to be green
Their leaves don't go through a brown phase each autumn but stay green until they fall off each winter
Their small needle-like leaves are resistant to cold winters and so don’t need to be shed each winter
They are traditionally brought inside as a Christmas tree so stay green all year round
Because conifers stay green all year round they can photosynthesise even during the winter. Because of this they symbolize rebirth and life in the middle of winter, leading to their use as the Christmas tree
Why are mosses predominantly found on the forest floor and tree branches of temperate forests?
The strong levels of light allow the mosses to grow
Mosses feed on the sap of trees and need cold dry conditions
Mosses have a parasitic relationship with trees
The low light conditions and damp atmosphere mean there is little else to compete with the mosses
It's often said that mosses will grow on the north side of trees. This is because, in the Northern Hemisphere at least, conditions are cooler and damper on the north side of trees
Which of the following is not a way that coniferous trees are adapted to the conditions of winters?
Thick bark to protect themselves against the cold
Pine cones to protect the seeds during the winter
Broad leaves to absorb the maximum amount of sunlight
Dense forests to create warmth during the winter
Coniferous trees have small, thin needles and are green even in winter so can photosynthesise all year round
What type of tree dominates in coniferous forests?
Coniferous forests often grow in areas where the conditions and climate are too extreme for broadleaf
Mediterranean forests include a special type of vegetative ecosystem known as Mediterranean scrublands. Whilst these are normally not large enough to be considered true forests they do include small oaks and pines. What is one of the main threats facing Mediterranean scrubland?
Overgrazing by sheep and goats
Forest fires
Sheep and goats will graze on any and all vegetation, reducing areas to desert rather rapidly
Plant or ecological succession is the process from exposed ground through to a final established forest. In terms of succession what stage follows a mature forest?
Emergent forest or community
Defined forest or community
Climax forest or community
Successional forest or community
A climax community is the peak that an ecosystem can reach. Often they can't reach that point as fires and other destructive forces will knock back the succession to the start
If a forest contains spruces, hemlock, pines and fir trees what type of forest is it?
Even though they look similar, coniferous forests have a variety of trees. This sort of biome is also known as a taiga
In terms of forest management, what is coppicing?
Allowing trees to grow wild to form wildlife zones
Young trees are cut down nearly to ground level to allow multiple shoots to regrow in subsequent years
Growing single trees and removing the branches to form tall straight trunks
Logging single trees from within the forest to allow better growth of other trees. Removal often occurs using horses to minimize damage to trees surrounding the trees that are removed
Coppicing is a traditional technique that has been undertaken in British forests for thousands of years
Author:  Ruth M

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