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Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome. What are Roman numerals? It is a system of using letters in place of using numbers. For example: the number “**1**” becomes capital letter “**I**” in Roman numerals. The number “**2**” becomes two capital letters “**II**”. The two **II**’s are equal to *1 + 1 = 2*.

The number “**3**” would be three capital letters “**III**” for *1 + 1 + 1 = 3*. Now it gets tricky because the number “**4**” is not “IIII” rather it becomes “**IV**”. “**V**” is equal to the number “**5**”. In Roman numerals the number “**4**” is shown as “**IV**” which is the same as *5 – 1 = 4*.

Some helpful hints to remember are:

5 = V

10 = X

50 = L

100 = C

500 = D

1000 = M

1.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

XXII

XXII

112

22

-18

222

In Roman numerals “X” is the same or equal to the number “10”. “XX” is the same as 10 + 10 = 20. “I” equals the number “1” so “II” is the same as 1 + 1 = 2. XXII is, therefore, the same as 20 + 2 = 22. Answer (b) is the correct answer

2.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

XCIX

XCIX

109

119

909

99

In Roman numerals the letter “C” equals the number “100.” The letter “X” equals the number “10”. When a single “X” comes before the letters “L” or “C” it shows that we must subtract that number. “XC” is the same as 100 - 10 = 90. When the letter “I” comes before a “V” or an “X” it also shows that you must subtract so “IX” is the same as 10 - 1 = 9. That means that “XCIX” is the same as 90 + 9 = 99. Answer (d) is the correct answer

3.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

IX

IX

11

-9

9

4

In Roman numerals “X” is the same or equal to the number “10”. “I” equals the number “1”. When a single “I” comes before the letters “V” and “X” it means you must subtract the “I” from that letter. In this case “IX” is the same as 10 - 1 = 9. Answer (c) is the correct answer

4.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

XLIV

XLIV

44

64

615

105014

In Roman numerals “X” is the same or equal to the number “10”. “L” equals the number “50”. “I” equals the number “1” and “V” equals the number “5.” When a single “X” comes before the letters “L” and “C” it means you must subtract the “X” from that letter. This means that “XL” is the same as or equal to 50 - 10 = 40. When a single “I” comes before the letters “V” it is the same as or equal to 5 - 1 = 4. “XLIV” is, therefore, the same as writing 40 + 4 = 44. Answer (a) is the correct answer

5.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

CLVI

CLVI

156

46

1506

1005051

In Roman numerals the letter “C” equals the number “100.” The letter “L” equals the number “50”. The letter “V” equals the number “5” and the letter “I” equals the number “1.” Therefore, “CLVI” is the same as 100 + 50 + 5 + 1 = 156. Answer (a) is the correct answer

6.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

LXVIII

LXVIII

48

518

68

453

In Roman numerals “L” equals the number “50” and “X” equals the number “10”. This gives us 50 + 10 = 60. “V” equals the number “5” and “I” equals the number “1” so “III” is the same as 1 + 1 + 1 = 3. “LXVII” is the same as or equal to 50 + 10 + 5 + 3 = 68. Answer (c) is the correct answer

7.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

MDCC

MDCC

15200

1300

600

1700

In Roman numerals the letter “M” equals the number “1000”. The letter “D” equals the number “500.” The letter “C” equals the number “100”. The letters “CC” is the same as or equal to 100 + 100 = 200. Therefore, “MDCC” is the same as 1000 + 500 + 100 + 100 = 1700. Answer (d) is the correct answer

8.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

LXXXV

LXXXV

50305

85

15

615

In Roman numerals the letter “L” equals the number “50” and “X” equals the number “10”. The letters “XXX” is the same as 10 + 10 + 10 = 30. The letter “V” equals the number “5.” This now gives us 50 + 30 + 5 = 85. Answer (b) is the correct answer

9.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

XVII

XVII

18

13

1052

17

In Roman numerals “X” is the same or equal to the number “10”. “V” is the same or equal to the number “5” and “I” is the same as or equals the number “1” so “XVII” is the same as 10 + 5 + 1 + 1 = 17. Answer (d) is the correct answer

10.

For the Roman numeral below, find the answer that it represents in numbers.

DLXI

DLXI

5511

5005022

561

461

In Roman numerals the letter “D” equals the number “500.” The letter “L” equals the number “50”. The letter “X” equals the number “10” and the letter “I” equals the number “1.” Therefore, “DLXI” is the same as 500 + 50 + 10 + 1 = 561. Answer (c) is the correct answer