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Roman Numerals Part 2 - Adding, Subtracting and Multiplying

Sundials sometimes use Roman numerals.

Roman Numerals Part 2 - Adding, Subtracting and Multiplying

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Just as we can add, subtract and multiply numbers, so can we do the same with Roman numerals. Let’s look at the following example:

III - II = ?
III is the same as 1 + 1 + 1 = 3
II is the same as 1 + 1 = 2
III - II then is the same as 3 - 2 = 1
“1” in Roman numerals is “I” so the complete answer is: III - II = I

Now let’s look at another example:

IX x IV = ?
IX is the same as 10 - 1 = 9
IV is the same as 5 - 1 = 4
IX x IV then is the same as 9 x 4 = 36
“36” in Roman numerals is XXXVI so the complete answer is: IX x IV = XXXVI

Some helpful hints to remember are:

5 = V
10 = X
50 = L
100 = C
500 = D
1000 = M

1.
M x III + LIV = ?
MMCMIV
MIIILIV
MMLIV
MMMLIV
M x III + LIV = ?
M is the same as 1000
I is the same as 1
L is the same as 50
IV is the same as 4
M x III is the same as 1000 x 3 = 3000
LIV is the same as 50 + 4 = 54
3000 + 50 + 4 = 3054

“3054” in Roman numerals is “MMMLIV.” Answer (d) is the correct answer
2.
X + III + VI = ?
XVIX
XIIIVI
XIX
XVIII
X + III + VI = ? X is the same as 10
III is the same as 3
VI is the same as 6
10 + 3 + 6 = 19

“19” in Roman numerals is “XIX” so the complete answer is: X + III + VI = XIX. Answer (c) is the correct answer
3.
LXXX + LXXX = ?
LLXXXXX
CLX
LLXL
CXL
LXXX + LXXX = ?
L is the same as 50
X is the same as 10
XXX is the same as 10 + 10 + 10 = 30
50 + 30 = 80
80 + 80 = 160

“160” in Roman numerals is “CLX.” Answer (d) is the correct answer
4.
DLIX + MDC = ?
MCLIX
MMCLIX
CMLIX
DMLIX
DLIX + MDC = ?
D is the same as 500
L is the same as 50
IX is the same as 9
M is the same as 1000
D is the same as 500
C is the same as 100
DLIX is the same as 500 + 50 + 9 = 559
MDC is the same as 1000 + 500 + 100 = 1600
559 + 1600 = 2159

“2159” in Roman numerals is “MMCLIX.” So the complete answer is: DLIX + MDC = MMCLIX. Answer (d) is the correct answer
5.
DCC - LIX + XXIX = ?
DCXII
CDLXX
DCLXX
CCCCCCXXXXXXX
DCC - LIX + XXIX = ?
D is the same as 500
C is the same as 100
L is the same as 50
IX is the same as 9
X is the same as 10
DCC is the same as 500 + 100 + 100 = 700
LIX is the same as 50 + 9 = 59
XXIX is the same as 10 + 10 + 9 = 29
700 - 59 = 641 + 29 = 670

“670” in Roman numerals is “DCLXX.” “D” equals 500, “C” equals 100, “L” equals 50 and “XX” equals 10 + 10 = 20, giving us 500 + 100 + 50 + 20 = 670. Answer (d) is the correct answer
6.
D + L + M = ?
DML
DLM
MDL
MLD
D + L + M = ?
D is the same as 500
L is the same as 50
M is the same as 1000
500 + 50 + 1000 = 1550

“1550” in Roman numerals is “MDL.” Answer (d) is the correct answer
7.
XL + VI + CIV = ?
CLIX
XCIX
LCIX
CL
XL + VI + CIV = ?
X is the same as 10
L is the same as 50
V is the same as 5
I is the same as 1
C is the same as 100
IV is the same as 4
XL is the same as 50 - 10 = 40
VI is the same as 5 + 1 = 6
CIV is the same as 100 + 5 - 1 = 104
40 + 6 + 104 = 150

“150” in Roman numerals is “CL.” Answer (d) is the correct answer
8.
LI x VIII = ?
CDVIII
LVIV
LVIIII
CCCCVIII
LI x VIII = ?
LI is the same as 51
VIII is the same as 8
51 x 8 = 408

“408” in Roman numerals is “CDVIII.” The letter “C” equals “100.” The letter “D” equal “500”. When the letter “C” comes before the letters “D” or “M” is tells you that you must subtract the letters so “CD” is the same as 500 - 100 = 400. “V” is the number 5 and “III” is 1 + 1 + 1 = 3 so 5 + 3 = 8. So the complete answer is: LI x VIII = CDVIII. Answer (d) is the correct answer
9.
III x VI x V = ?
XC
XXXIII
XL
LXXXX
III x VI x V = ?
III is the same as 3
VI is the same as 6
V is the same as 5
3 x 6 = 18 x 5 = 90

“90” in Roman numerals is “XC.” When a single “X” comes before the letters “L” and “C” it tells you that you need to subtract. So “XC” is the same as 100 - 10 = 90. Answer (d) is the correct answer
10.
XXV - XIV = ?
XXI
VI
XXXI
XI
XXV - XIV = ?
XXV is the same as 25
XIV is the same as 14
25 - 14 = 11

“11” in Roman numerals is “XI” so the complete answer is: XXV - XIV = XI. Answer (d) is the correct answer
Author:  Christine G. Broome

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