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Rotation is an important aspect of Codes questions.

# NVR - Looking at a Shape and Making a Code (2)

This is the second article in this section of our 11+ Non-Verbal Reasoning exam illustrations. In the first we introduced you to how Codes questions appear in the exam, and showed you some of the more basic ways codes can be formed (by flipping a shape or adding a line).

In this second lesson, we’ll be looking at a couple of other ways codes can be made: through rotation and shading.

As I said in the previous lesson, Codes questions are one of the easier parts of the exam. Nevertheless, it won’t do any harm to teach your child how to tackle them – and it’s all good exercise for the brain.

## How Are These Kinds of Question Posed in The Exam?

As we have seen already, candidates are shown three shapes or symbols, each with their own pair of letters (or occasionally three letters) which represent them in a code. They are then asked to choose from a list of options, which two letters will represent a fourth shape, using the same code.

Let’s look at some more examples:

Example One

Look at the shapes provided on the left. Decide on the meaning of the code created by the letters next to the shapes. Each letter means something and can be determined by looking at the symbols. Then look at the test shape and decide which of the given code letters is an accurate description of it.

This question involves the use of different shapes and rotation. In order to solve this, we must search for the similar code letters and this immediately suggests a connection between the first and second shapes. The connection, coded ‘K’, is that the shape has two arrow heads.

The code for the remaining shape must therefore be ‘L’. The test shape is therefore also coded ‘L’. Remember, the order of letters is usually important. The second letters - K, K and L, show a similarity between the first two that is not shared with the third.

The first letter of the code must relate to something different and, as there is little else to choose from, we can assume that it will be the direction the arrow(s) are facing. The test shape is facing the same way as the first shape so it must have the code ‘D’. The answer is therefore ‘DL’, answer ‘a’.

Now let’s look at another example, this time a question involving shading:

Example Two

Look at the shapes provided on the left. Decide on the meaning of the code created by the letters next to the shapes. Each letter means something and can be determined by looking at the symbols. Then look at the test shape and decide which of the given code letters is an accurate description of it.

Remember the technique - you need to find similarities in the shapes and symbols where the letter code for them is partly the same.

The connection here is through the letter ‘A’ being common to the first and second shape. The main thing they have in common, but the last shape does not have, is the stepped line in the middle.

The step shape in the third is the same as the test shape, and is coded ‘B’. That rules out options ‘a’, ‘c’ and ‘d’.

The other element of the code is totally different throughout and as they're all circles and we've accounted for the step shape in the middle, it must refer to the shading. Our test shape has the same shading as the second shape so gets the code ‘Y’, giving an overall code of ‘BY’ (answer ‘e’).

## Sample Tests

Now we have looked at four of the variables used to form Codes questions in the 11+ Non-Verbal Reasoning exam: flipping, lines, shading and rotation. You may feel ready to have a go at some of these questions yourself. If so, you can try the 14 Codes quizzes on the Education Quizzes site. You’ll find them in the 11+ Non-Verbal Reasoning section, or you can follow these links:

Code Breaker 1

Code Breaker 2

Code Breaker 3

Code Breaker 4

Code Breaker 5

Code Breaker 6

Code Breaker 7

Shapes and Letters 1

Shapes and Letters 2

Shapes and Letters 3

Shapes and Letters 4

Shapes and Letters 5

Shapes and Letters 6

Shapes and Letters 7

Before you do though, you might want to take the final lesson in this section on Codes, which looks at codes which have three, rather than two, letters in them, and ones involving letters not shown in the sample codes. See you there!