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Grammar 07 - Tenses - Present Perfect
"Many tourists have visited the Taj Mahal." - This sentence is in the present perfect tense.

Grammar 07 - Tenses - Present Perfect

Continuing with our series on tenses, this High English quiz looks at the present perfect tense. The present perfect tense comprises two parts - the verb TO HAVE (either HAS or HAVE) in combination with a base verb in its past participle form. Look at these two sentences:

‘He has slept for four hours.’
‘We have attended his dinner.’

In both examples we see the verb TO HAVE (‘has’ and ‘have’) has been used along with the past participle of sleep (slept) and attend (attended).

Another form is the use of ‘has been’ or ‘have been’ as in the sentence ‘I have been elected to the Lok Sabha.’ In all the forms the negative form with the use of ‘not’ is also common.

Use of the present perfect tense is tricky because it has many variations. The most common use is to describe action that commenced in the past and continued until the present, as in the examples depicted above. The present perfect tense can also be used for describing actions that commenced in the past and may be repeated. For instance, in the following sentence:

‘I have seen that play three times so far.’

In this sentence an action is shown but the action could be repeated and this is because of the use of ‘so far’ in the sentence. Present perfect tense employs many time adverbs such as 'ever', 'already', 'still', 'yet', 'never' and 'just'. An example of such use can be seen from the sentence ‘I have never seen him before.’

The most common use of the present perfect tense is to show when action commenced or for how long, and in order to do this ‘since’ and ‘for’ are used as in these two sentences:

‘I have lived in Bangalore SINCE June, 1965.’
‘I have lived in Bangalore FOR 50 years.’

The present perfect tense is very common in written and spoken English and the quiz that follows takes you through some of the uses.

1.
Choose the sentence that has the correct present perfect tense.
They have not discovered the island.
They has not discovered the island.
They have not discover the island.
They has not discover the island.
The sentence has the present perfect negative form and hence the use of 'not' in between the auxiliary verb (have) and the past participle of the main verb. Option 2 uses 'has' which cannot be used for the subject 'they.' Option 3 does not use the past participle of the verb and option 4 uses the wrong variations of the auxiliary and main verbs
2.
Choose the sentence that has the correct present perfect tense.
Many tourists have visited the Taj Mahal.
The Taj Mahal has been visited by many tourists.
Many tourists has visited the Taj Mahal.
Both options 1 and 2 are correct but option 3 is wrong.
Both Options 1 and 2 are correct, the only difference being that the sentence in option 1 is in active voice and the sentence in Option 2 is in passive voice. Option 3 uses 'has' which cannot be used for a subject in plural
3.
"____ you ever _______ the Rashtrapathi Bhavan in New-Delhi?"
Choose the appropriate present perfect form from the options to fill the blanks and complete the sentence.
Have, visit
Has, visited
Had, visited
Have, visited
This is an interrogative sentence. Words such as 'ever' are used between the auxiliary verb (have) and the main verb (visit). Since 'you' is the subject 'have' is the correct usage for present perfect tense, along with the past participle of the verb (visit). Option 1 does not use the past participle; option 2 uses 'has' which cannot be used for 'you', and option 3 uses 'had' which is the past perfect form. Note that the sentence describes an action that has occurred any time in the past up to the present
4.
Choose the sentence that has the correct present perfect tense.
Why has he not painted the living room blue?
Why have he not painted the living room blue?
Why has he not paint the living room blue?
Why have he not paint the living room blue?
This is an interrogative and negative sentence and hence the subject 'he' is placed along with 'not' between the auxiliary verb (has) and the past participle of the main verb (paint). Option 2 has used 'have' which cannot be used for 'he.' Option 3 does not use the past participle of the main verb. Option 4 uses the wrong variation of the auxiliary and main verbs
5.
"Hooray! I ________________ for my school's soccer team."
Choose the appropriate present perfect form from the options to fill the blank and complete the sentence.
have been select
has been selected
had been selected
have been selected
Since 'I' is the subject 'have been' is the correct usage for present perfect tense, along with the past participle of the verb (select). Option 1 does not use the past participle; option 2 uses 'has' which cannot be used for 'I' and option 3 uses 'had' which is the past perfect form. Note that the sentence is an announcement of a recent event
6.
"I _____________ and won five elections so far."
Choose the appropriate present perfect form from the options to fill the blank and complete the sentence.
had contested
have contested
has contested
have contest
Since 'I' is the subject 'have' is the correct usage for present perfect tense, along with the past participle of the verb (contest). Option 1 uses 'had' which is the past perfect form. Option 3 uses 'has' which cannot be used for 'I', and option 4 does not use the past participle of the verb. Note that the sentence talks about an event that has happened with a present tense
7.
Choose the sentence that has the correct present perfect tense.
Where has they learn English before?
Where has they learned English before?
Where have they learn English before?
All of the above are wrong.
The correct sentence would be 'Where have they learned English before?' All the options are wrong on account of the wrong usage of the present perfect tense form. Options 1 and 3 do not use the past participle of the main verb (learn). Option 2 uses 'has' which cannot be used for the subject 'they'
8.
"Abhishek? Oh, he is a smart boy. We _________ him since his childhood."
Choose the appropriate present perfect form from the options to fill the blank and complete the sentence.
have know
has known
have known
had known
Since 'we' is the subject 'have' is the correct usage for present perfect tense, along with the past participle of the verb (know). Option 1 does not use the past participle; option 2 uses 'has' which cannot be used for 'We', and option 4 uses 'had' which is the past perfect form. Note that the sentence describes a situation that has started in the past and continued up to the present
9.
"The children __________ really hard for the play. Please don't cancel it now."
Choose the appropriate present perfect form from the options to fill the blank and complete the sentence.
have worked
has worked
have work
has work
Remember the present perfect form has to use 'has' or 'have' and the past participle of the verb (work). The other options are wrong. Also note that reference is to the action that commenced in the past and has taken place several times up to the present
10.
Choose the sentence that has the correct present perfect tense.
They have turned around.
Have they turned around?
They have not turned around.
All of the above are correct.
All are correct and represent affirmative, interrogative and negative sentences
Author:  V T Narendra

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