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Grammar 04 - Types of Conjunctions
"Jack and Jill went up the hill." Can you spot the conjunction in this sentence?

Grammar 04 - Types of Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that are parts of speech that are vital in making the English language readable. If there were no conjunctions, you would read text something like this:

"Jack went up the hill."

"Jill went up the hill."

Now read the sentence: "Jack AND Jill went up the hill."

The word, AND, that joins the two sentences into one larger sentence is known as a conjunction. Conjunctions are joining words that join two words or two phrases or two clauses. There are three types of conjunctions - coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions are single word conjunctions and there are only seven of these. They are: FOR, AND, NOR, BUT, OR, YET and SO. The primary function of these conjunctions is to join two words or two phrases or two independent clauses.

Subordinating conjunctions are conjunctions that join an independent clause with a dependent clause. For instance, ‘I went swimming’ and ‘it was cold’ can be joined to make the sentence ‘I Went swimming ALTHOUGH it was cold.’ The word ALTHOUGH is the subordinating conjunction.

Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions similar to coordinating conjunctions that join clauses that are similar. Correlative conjunctions come in pairs and they are few in number. For instance, ‘NEITHER my sister NOR my brother is right-handed’ and ‘BOTH my sister AND brother are left-handed’ are sentences that use the correlative conjunctions NEITHER…NOR and BOTH…AND.

Coordinating and correlative conjunctions are generally categorised into conjunctions of addition/negative addition, contrast, alternative and inferential. Conjunctions of addition just add without any qualification. Conjunctions of contrast help to show contrast. Alternative conjunctions help to choose between two alternatives. Inferential conjunctions help to draw inferences. Conjunctions have a way of being used in many different situations. Take the quiz that follows and learn the various conjunctions that light up our language.

1.
The words such as AND, BUT and YET that join sentences are called what?
Conjunctions.
Articles.
Adverbs.
Nouns.
Such words are called conjunctions. Conjunctions help to connect two sentences or two clauses or even two nouns. Conjunctions can be classified into many types such as coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions
2.
The multiple-word conjunctions EITHER...OR, NEITHER...NOR and NOT ONLY...BUT ALSO are called what?
Addition conjunctions.
Alternative conjunctions.
Contrast conjunctions.
Correlative conjunctions.
When you join similar elements you use correlative conjunctions, which are always used in pairs. For example, "The batsman could NEITHER defend NOR attack the ball", "You EITHER pay me OR get beaten up"
3.
In the two sentences "We hand over the ticket to the doorman AND go through that door" and "He held it up so THAT everyone could see it" conjunctions have been used to do what?
CONTRAST two clauses in the same sentence.
JOIN two clauses in the same sentence.
ADD two clauses in the same sentence.
SUBTRACT two clauses in the same sentence.
Conjunctions are used to JOIN two clauses or two sentences or two words
4.
The conjunctions OR and EITHER...OR expressing choice are what type of conjunctions?
JOINING conjunctions.
COORDINATING conjunctions.
ALTERNATIVE conjunctions.
ADDITION conjunctions.
When you want to express choice you use ALTERNATIVE conjunctions. For example, "He is EITHER a fool OR a rogue", "You must vacate the room at once OR you will be thrown out"
5.
The conjunctions NOR and NEITHER...NOR express what?
SUBORDINATION.
COORDINATION.
ADDITION.
NEGATIVE ADDITION.
When you want to show negative connotations you use NEGATIVE ADDITION conjunctions. For example, "After all, he doesn't buy costly motorcycles, NOR does he bring home a new car every month", "NEITHER my sister NOR my brother will meet me at the school"
6.
The single-word conjunctions AND, YET, NOR, and BUT are what type of conjunctions?
COORDINATING conjunctions.
SUBORDINATING conjunctions.
ALTERNATIVE conjunctions.
CORRELATIVE conjunctions.
When you want to join two clauses or sentences of equal rank, then you use COORDINATING conjunctions. AND, BUT, OR, NOR, EITHER...OR, NEITHER...NOR, YET, and NOT ONLY...BUT ALSO are some of the most common coordinating conjunctions
7.
The conjunctions AND and NOT ONLY...BUT ALSO express what?
CORRELATION.
NEGATIVE ADDITION.
ADDITION.
CONTRAST.
When you want to add one statement to another without expressing ideas such as inference, choice or contrast you use addition conjunctions. AND, ALSO, TOO, AS WELL AS and BOTH...AND are some of the addition conjunctions. For example, "He was NOT ONLY scolded BUT ALSO punished", "These classes are BOTH free and informative"
8.
The conjunctions BUT and YET show what?
ADDITION.
CONTRAST.
CORRELATION.
NEGATIVE ADDITION.
When you want to express comparisons or contrasts you use CONTRASTING conjunctions.The most common contrasting conjunctions are BUT, YET, BUT STILL, HOWEVER and ALTHOUGH. For instance, "She's a shy BUT loving little girl"
9.
A conjunction that links a dependent clause to an independent clause is what kind of conjunction?
A CORRELATIVE conjunction.
A JOINING conjunction.
A CONTRASTING conjunction.
A SUBORDINATING conjunction.
"The police recommend that everyone stay inside BECAUSE the killer could be dangerous." In this sentence you can see the independent clause is linked to the dependent clause by the subordinating conjunction 'because'
10.
What do INFERENTIAL conjunctions introduce?
Inference.
Contrast.
Coordination.
Alternative.
When you want to infer something, then you use INFERENTIAL conjunctions. For example, "The fielder was lazy, THEREFORE, he failed to hold the catch"
Author:  V T Narendra

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