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Grammar 15 - Present and Past Participles
Saurav's uncle always has his house clean, cleans, cleaner or cleaned?

Grammar 15 - Present and Past Participles

We have learnt that main verbs come in two kinds: finite verbs and non-finite verbs. While finite verbs change their forms according to the number, person and tense, non-finite verbs do not change their forms. The infinitives, gerunds and participles are non-finites and are also called verbals as they are derived from verbs.

We have learnt that an infinitive is a verbal consisting of TO and a verb, for example - TO PLAY. We have also leant that a gerund is a verbal consisting of a verb and the suffix ING (for example - CRYING) and that a gerund functions as a noun. But what about participles?

The participle is a verbal that is formed from a verb by adding one of the following suffixes: ‘ING’, ‘NE’, ‘ED’, ‘EN’, ‘N’, ‘T’ or ‘D’. The participle functions as an adjective and can take the form of a present participle or a past participle. The present participle always ends in ‘ING’. For instance, CRYING, FALLING and BARKING are present participles. The past participle can end in ‘NE’, ‘ED’, ‘EN’, ‘N’, ‘T’ or ‘D’ depending upon the verb. For instance, GONE, TIRED, SHAKEN, SEEN, DEALT and SAVED are past participles.

Though participles are derived from verbs they function as adjectives and hence modify nouns or pronouns. Participles find their uses in several ways:

Participles are used as a subject - "The DISGRUNTLED employee sat down in protest" or "CRYING babies are difficult to handle."

Participles are used as a complement of the subject - "He seems DEVASTATED."

Participles are also used as a complement of the object - "I heard the dog BARKING outside."

One note of caution is warranted however. Don’t get confused between a gerund and a present participle. For instance, in the sentence "They enjoy DANCING", DANCING is a gerund whereas in the sentence "The DANCING boy was applauded", DANCING is a present participle. Take this quiz and understand how participles are properly used.

1.
"Dogs that bark seldom bite" - Choose the sentence with the correct participle.
Barking dogs seldom bite.
Bark dogs seldom bite .
Barked dogs seldom bite.
Dogs barking seldom bite.
The present participle of the verb 'bark' is 'barking'. Here, the participle is used as a subject
2.
"The handbag --- at the supermarket belongs to Lakshmi." Fill the blank by choosing the correct participle.
Finding
Finds
Find
Found
Here, the past participle is to be used and the past participle of 'find' is 'found'
3.
"The traveller that was tired sat down to rest" - Choose the sentence with the correct participle.
The tire traveller sat down to rest.
The traveller tire sat down to rest .
The traveller tired sat down to rest.
The tired traveller sat down to rest.
The past participle of the verb 'tire' is 'tired'. Here, the participle is used as a subject
4.
Choose the sentence with the correct participle.
Ayesha seems worry.
Ayesha seems worried.
Ayesha seems worrying.
Ayesha seems to worry.
The past participle of the verb 'worry' is 'worried'. Here, the participle is used as a complement of the subject
5.
"We stayed on the platform --- for the train." Fill the blank by choosing the correct participle.
Waited
Waiting
Wait
Waits
Here, the present participle is to be used and the present participle of 'wait' is 'waiting'
6.
Choose the sentence with the correct participle.
We found all the people gone.
We found all the people go.
We found all the people to gone.
We found all the people to go.
The past participle of the verb 'go' is 'gone'. Here, the participle is used as a complement of the object
7.
"---, he walked away from the accident spot." Fill the blank by choosing the correct participle.
Shaken
Shake
Shaked
Shakes
Here, the past participle is to be used and the past participle of 'shake' is 'shaken'
8.
Choose the sentence with the correct participle.
I saw Vikram left the room.
I saw Vikram to leaving the room.
I saw Vikram to leave the room.
I saw Vikram leaving the room.
The present participle of the verb 'leave' is 'leaving'. Here, the participle is used as a complement of the object
9.
"Saurav's uncle always has his house ---." Fill the blank by choosing the correct participle.
Clean
Cleaning
Cleaned
Cleans
Here, the past participle is to be used and the past participle of 'clean' is 'cleaned'
10.
Choose the sentence with the correct participle.
The blockbuster movie is entertained.
The blockbuster movie entertaining.
The blockbuster movie is entertaining.
The blockbuster movie entertained.
The present participle of the verb 'entertain' is 'entertaining'. Here, the participle is used as a complement of the subject
Author:  V T Narendra

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