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Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions 2
Glow sticks are applications of exothermic reactions.

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions 2

Exothermic reactions release energy into the surroundings, whereas endothermic reactions absorb energy. Hand warmers, glow sticks and self heating coffee are all applications of energy changes in chemical reactions. For the higher tier of GCSE Chemistry, you will be expected to explain how and why these energy changes occur. The short answer to 'how' is that during a chemical reaction, bonds are broken and made. The short answer to 'why' is that energy is involved in making and breaking bonds.

In a chemical reaction, you always end up with the same numbers and types of atom as you started with, but joined together in a different combination. For example, the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to give water. To start with, the hydrogen atoms are joined to each other in pairs, as are the oxygen atoms. At the end of the reaction, two hydrogen atoms are joined to one oxygen atom in the compound water. Clearly, to get to this state of affairs, the bond between the hydrogen atoms must have been broken and so must the bonds between the oxygen atoms. Only when that has occured can the bonds of the water molecule form.

It stands to reason that to break the bonds between the hydrogen atoms will require an input of energy to make it happen. The same goes for the bonds between the original oxygen molecules. But when the hydrogen atoms join with oxygen atoms, it happens spontaneously and energy is released as the bonds of the water molecule form. Since the bonds that have been formed are different to the original bonds, it is unlikely that the same amount of energy will be released as was used in the first place. If more is released from bond making than was used for breaking the original bonds, energy will be released into the environment and the reaction is exothermic. if less is released, then the reaction is endothermic.

This can be represented on an energy level diagram. It is just a simple graph that shows the energy changes in a reaction. On the vertical axis, you have the energy and along the horizontal axis you have the progress of the reaction. The diagram itself shows the level of energy in the reactants and products as two short horizontal lines. If the products appear lower than the reactants, energy must have been lost from the system. This energy must have travelled into the surroundings i.e. an exothermic reaction. If the products appear higher than the reactants, the opposite is true.

Bond breaking is an...
endothermic process
exothermic process
exciting process
eltothermic process
Energy is required to break bonds
Electrolysis requires energy to make it work. This means it is...
an endothermic reaction
an exothermic reaction
an eltothermic reaction
a chemical reaction
Electrolysis requires a supply of electrical energy from a DC circuit
Thermal decomposition is...
an exothermic reaction
an endothermic reaction
a common reaction
an energy rich reaction
Thermal decomposition requires heat energy to break substances down
Bond making is an...
endothermic process
exothermic process
exciting process
eltothermic process
Energy is given out when bonds are formed
On an energy level diagram, the products of an exothermic reaction will be...
higher than the reactants
the same level as the reactants
on a different diagram to the reactants
lower than the reactants
This shows us that the products have less energy than the reactants, because energy has been transferred to the surroundings
ΔH is the energy change for the reaction. To calculate this...
add the reactants' energy to the products' energy
subtract the reactants' energy from the products' energy
divide the reactants' energy by the products' energy
subtract the products' energy from the reactants' energy
Products - reactants is +ve for endothermic reactions and -ve for exothermic reactions
Which of the following observations indicate an endothermic reaction?
The temperature of the decaying grass in the compost maker was considerably above the outside temperature
Hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine react so explosively and energetically that they are used to power rockets into space
The mixture bubbled vigorously and the temperature dropped by 40°C
A red glow spread through the mixture and the temperature increased by 10°C
It is not so much the bubbling that shows this is endothermic, that can happen in exothermic reactions, but rather the temperature drop. That indicates that heat energy has been lost from the reacting mixture
Neutralisation is...
an endothermic reaction
a physical reaction
an exothermic reaction
an oxidation reaction
The temperature of the products of a neutralisation reaction is higher than the temperature of the reactants
If a reaction is endothermic overall, what does this tell us about the bonds broken and made during the reaction?
There are equal amounts of energy required to break and make the bonds in the reaction
There is a lot of energy used for both making and breaking bonds
There is less energy used in breaking the bonds of the reactants than required to make the bonds of the products
There is more energy used in breaking the bonds of the reactants than required to make the bonds of the products
Remember, energy changes in chemical reactions are all about bond breaking and bond making
Pick the correct combination of information for an exothermic reaction.
°C ↑ ΔH +ve
°C ↑ ΔH -ve
°C ↓ ΔH +ve
°C ↓ ΔH -ve
ÄH is the symbol used to represent the energy change
You can find more about this topic by visiting BBC Bitesize - Exothermic and endothermic reactions

Author:  Kate Gardiner

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