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Abbreviations and Acronyms
What does the M stand for in IMF?

Abbreviations and Acronyms

In geography, we use many acronyms and some abbreviations. The GCSE syllabus requires that you know and understand some of the most important ones and how to use them appropriately and correctly in the particular topic you are studying. Unfortunately, a few of them are not exclusive and sometimes different sources will use a different term to mean the same thing. You therefore need to learn as many as you can, so keep your eyes open when researching topics for essays or fieldwork.

You will find that the majority of abbreviations are used during your studies of human geography for example, you may have been taught about the differences in response to a natural hazard in an LEDC compared to an MEDC. Could you do the same if asked about an LIC and an HIC?

The answer is yes, but only if you recognised that LEDC and LIC (and MEDC and HIC) are effectively the same. It is also handy to know some examples of LEDCs, MEDCs, LICs and HICs.

When discussing globalisation, you will come across NEEs, TNCs, the EU and the IMF so it is essential that you know they stand for newly emerging economies, transnational corporations, the European Union and the International Monetary Fund. You may also need to consider the main reasons why some countries have a low GDP or a high GNI per capita. And then there are the BRICs countries ... When studying international aid, particularly that which is given following a natural disaster such as an earthquake, do you know who or what the WHO is?

1.
TNC stands for:
Transnational Collaboration
Tertiary Network Challenge
Trident Nuke Carrier
Transnational Corporation
A company that has operations (factories, offices, research and development labs, shops etc.) in more than one country. Many TNCs are large well-known brands
2.
Which of the following is true?
LIC stands for Local Index of Communication
An HIC is the opposite of an MEDC
LIC stands for Labour Intensive Community
The opposite of an MEDC is an LIC
LIC stands for Low Income Country
3.
A method of measuring development based on the GDP per person, life expectancy and adult literacy is the definition of the:
HDI (Human Development Index)
CLLI (Cash, Life and Literacy Index)
ESI (Economic and Social Index)
NDI (National Development Index)
The HDI uses economic and social indicators to produce an index figure that allows a comparison between countries to be made
4.
The acronym LEDC stands for:
Less Economically Developed Country
Lower Economically Developed Country
Lightly Environmentalised Distant Country
Long Evolved Distant Cousin
A characteristic of an LEDC is that a large proportion of the rural population are subsistence farmers and a lot of the export economy depends on agriculture
5.
What term and acronym is used to describe countries that have begun to experience high rates of economic development, usually with rapid industrialisation?
Country of Economic Development, CED
Low Agriculture Country, LAC
Newly Emerging Economy, NEE
Rapidly Industrialising Nation, RIN
They differ from LICs in that they no longer rely primarily on agriculture, they have made improvements in infrastructure and industrial growth, and are therefore experiencing an increasing GNI per capita and investment from overseas. Examples of NEEs are the so-called BRICS countries - Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa
6.
GNI is a measure of what?
The flow rate of a river or stream
How wealthy a country is
The air pressure in an avalanche
Population density
The World Bank uses the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita to classify if a country is an LIC or an HIC
7.
What does the M stand for in IMF?
Management
Monetary
Motoring
Madagascar
The IMF is the International Monetary Fund. Countries contribute funds from which other member countries with balance of payments problems can borrow money
8.
The term CBD would be applied to which of the following?
A volcanic eruption
The infrastructure of a country
A city
Renewable energy resources
It is the acronym for the Central Business District of a city and is usually represented as the inner circle on an urban model
9.
The GDP of a country measures what?
Its population increase over a ten year period
The erosion of the coastline
Its carbon footprint
Its economic performance in a given period of time
It is the acronym for Gross Domestic Product
10.
The abbreviation R&D stands for:
Relief and Disaster
Research and Development
Rubber and Diesel
Response and Delay
Research and development is a quaternary sector industry
Author:  Kev Woodward

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