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Have you ever felt an earthquake?


As part of your GCSE geography studies of how the Earth actually works, you will be required to study earthquakes. Not only do you need to know what causes them, you need to know how they affect human lives in both rich and poor countries. You may be challenged to examine information from geographical information systems in order to draw conclusions from the data.

The Earth is made up from a number of different layers, the core, the mantle and the crust. The crust is cracked into large plates which move slowly. It is believed that convection currents in the upper mantle causes this to happen. The movements are measured in centimetres per year but, because the plates are massive, the forces involved with their movements are enormous.

Where these plates come together, various things can happen.

The movement of the Earth's plates past one-another is ...
completely predictable
not known
There is a lot of friction between the rocks of the plates so they don't move smoothly past each other. This movement is unpredictable which is why earthquake forecasting is so difficult
The point on the surface of the Earth, directly above where the earthquake originates is known as the ...
The point where the earthquake happened is known as the focus
Where do earthquakes mainly occur?
At the boundaries between plates
At the centre of plates
Under the sea
At the North and South Poles
They are mainly caused by plates moving against each other
On the following list, where is the deepest earthquake likely to occur?
In the UK
Somewhere along the San Andreas fault
The west coast of Peru
Impossible to say, the depth of an earthquake is random
You should be aware of the main examples of the different types of plate boundary. You should also know that deep earthquakes occur at destructive plate boundaries. The west coast of Peru is where you find a destructive plate boundary
Which of the following is a secondary effect of an earthquake?
Ground shaking
Ground rupture
A tsunami
All of the above
Earthquakes cause the ground to shake and cracks can appear. Secondary effects are events that are triggered by an earthquake such as landslides, falling objects, fires and disease (water supplies are broken, so there is little or no clean water for hygiene and drinking)
When compared with a LEDC, during a large earthquake, the buildings in a city of a MEDC ...
will all collapse
will burst into flame
are less likely to be damaged
are more likely to suffer damage
MEDCs can afford to build earthquake resistant buildings
Which of the following is not a reason why there is greater loss of life in a LEDC than a MEDC from an earthquake measuring 8 on the Richter scale?
The rescue services are less well equipped
Communications are better
Water supplies are cut
Buildings are weaker
There are many reasons why populations in LEDCs or less developed regions of MEDCs are hit harder - it usually comes down to a lack of money
The cause of an earthquake is ...
hot magma from the mantle moving upwards through the crust
water exploding because of the heat deep in the Earth's crust
shrinkage of the Earth
the release of strain that has built up in rocks at a plate boundary
There is a huge amount of friction between the plates which stops them moving smoothly
Which one of the following explains why we have small earthquakes in Britain?
They are caused by small movements of old faults in the rocks
Britain is directly on a destructive plate boundary
There is a conservative plate boundary that runs from north to south down the middle of Britain
Britain is an island
Even though the faults were made millions of years in the past, the rocks on either side can still move a little, creating small earthquakes that are sometimes called earth tremors
Japan suffers from large earthquakes because ...
it is a small country
it is made up from several islands
it is split down the middle by a constructive plate boundary
it is right next to a destructive plate boundary
The Pacific plate is being destroyed under Japan
You can find more about this topic by visiting BBC Bitesize - Earthquakes

Author:  Kev Woodward

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