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Emerging Economies
The more developed a nation's economy, the higher its literacy rate.

Emerging Economies

The different types of economies, such as MEDCs or LEDCs, form a major topic in GCSE Geography. This quiz focusses on the emerging economies (or emerging markets) of countries like China or India.

You should have heard the terms less economically developed countries (LEDCs) and more economically developed countries (MEDCs) by now. But now there is a new term to grapple with - emerging economies. The terms 'less' and 'more' are seen as not allowing for economies that are moving from one to the other. Economies that are developed, but not as established as the economies of Western Europe, the United States and Japan. As a nation develops it moves through a series of stages, from LEDC to MEDC. Those nations that are moving through these stages are emerging economies, sometimes referred to as emerging markets.

As an MEDC, the UK often looks to these emerging economies as a market to export goods and services to. As standards of living increase, so does the demand for consumer goods that have been long established in economically advanced economies. This can include greater car use, more luxury goods like smartphones and personal computers, more demand for designer brands such as Burberry, and a massive increase in energy use due to the increase in electronic items.

India and China are considered the largest two emerging markets, and as their economies grow their need for goods and services grows too. With around one fifth of the world’s total population living in China and only slightly less living in India, the growing needs of these two nations will have a huge impact on the world's supplies - and also on the attempts to stop the increase in carbon dioxide output as their energy use increases. It is seen as the role of economically advanced nations, or MEDCs, to help reduce the impacts on the planet of these up and coming economies.

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1.
Which sector of industry dominates emerging economies?
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary
Primary industries can make use of a low skilled work force and can operate at lower costs in areas with less stringent regulations
2.
Which of these is not a reason that a landlocked nation may struggle to improve their economy?
Increased risk of hurricanes
Difficult and more expensive to ship goods because of export bureaucracy
Dependence on the infrastructure of neighbouring countries
Threats on all sides requiring military spending
Hurricanes are more of a coastal or 'island nation' problem, but shipping and technology are huge parts of the economy for emerging and advanced economies
3.
Why are literacy rates a measure of a nation's development?
As literacy rates rise the GDP falls
As a country becomes more advanced more people enjoy reading
Literacy rates show how skilled and educated the population is
As people become better educated they demand higher wages, reducing the countries economic output
Egypt has a GDP/person of around $4000, and a literacy rate of less than sixty percent, whilst the USA has a GDP/Person of around $26,000 and a literacy rate in the high ninty percent range.
4.
Which of the following is an indication of an economically advanced economy, rather than an emerging economy?
Low life expectancy
High male/female inequalities
Literacy rates close to 100%
Poor access to technology
The literacy rates in India are as low as 60%, whilst this rises to 99% in the UK
5.
As emerging economies grow they will start to use energy at a higher level. This will increase their production of greenhouse gases and so contribute more to global warming. What can economically advanced nations do to slow the rise in greenhouse gas emissions?
Prevent technology being shipped to these nations
Force these countries to lower emissions
Reduce our own carbon emissions to make up for it
Share technologies that reduce energy use
Many of the technologies being used today use a far lower amount of energy than their older predecessors, and so can reduce energy use worldwide. Since a lot of our products are made in these emerging economies, they already have access to them - although many may find they are out of their price range
6.
Which of the following is a reason that climate may influence a nation's economy?
Warmer nations have a great revenue from tourism
Some diseases thrive in hot humid conditions
It's harder to work in warmer climates
Countries in the tropics have longer histories
These diseases can limit people's life span or reduce their ability to work and take care of their family. Disease can have a bad effect on an entire family's chances of education
7.
How is the economic core of a nation defined?
The core revenues and services
The area with the most people in a county
The area with the highest standard of living, and generating the most wealth
The urban areas that have the greatest links and technology infrastructure
Often in emerging economies there is inequality internally with some areas having greater growth than others
8.
Why might some LEDCs' economies grow slower than others?
No access to the global market
No access to raw materials
High populations
Some are heavily in indebted
Many African nations have heavily borrowed from the World Bank and other institutions. These debts will be the focus of spending rather than health and education that can help the economy grow. Many of the slowest developing economies have access to raw materials including gold, oil, and diamonds, whilst the two fastest emerging economies have the largest populations
9.
Many emerging economies rely on aid from other nations and charities. Sometimes this aid is tied to trade agreements. What is an advantage of tied aid to the donor country?
The receiving country is forced to buy goods and services from the donor country
The aid can be used in the short and long term to save lives
It may be a condition of the funding that foreign companies are in charge of the project, reducing the benefit to the local economy in terms of work
The receiving nations government may take a percentage, or give the money to a large corporation
Some cases of tied aid have stated that the receiving country purchases arms and weapons from the donor country, effectively making this a loan rather than a donation. Charities may also state that aid is only available to certain people, based on religion, gender, age, race etc.
10.
Which of the following is not an economic development indicator?
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Life expectancy
Inequality in wealth
Unemployment
Life expectancy is influenced by a host of factors, including health, security and access to health care. But nations with high life expectancies are also nations more likely to be advanced economically
Author:  Ruth M

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