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Managing Ecosystems
Cyclists, walkers and horse riders can have a negative impact on the natural environment.

Managing Ecosystems

Ecosystems often need managing, either to prevent their destruction (by invasive species for example) or to allow sustainable use of their resources. This GCSE Geography quiz looks at some of the methods of management used, their advantages, their disadvantages and their effect on the environment.

Mankind has been managing the ecosystems in Britain ever since the arrival of hunter-gatherers to our shores - not only to prevent their destruction, but also to exploit their resources. Forest clearings were maintained to allow deer to graze in these areas. The deer would shed their antlers yearly and these could be collected and used in mines as shovels and picks. Coppicing is the growth and management of trees to allow specific growth to be cut, for example the thinner branches for willow weaving, or thicker branches for hedging, making longbows and even for fire wood.

Ecosystems management looks at managing natural resources by focusing on maintaining ecosystems in a sustainable manner. This will help to meet both ecological and human needs now and in the future. This system of management needs to be adaptive to changing needs and new information. One key technique is to balance the needs of the ecosystems with the realistic facts of the context of the ecosystem and the humans that might use the area.

The Yorkshire Dales National Park is a key source of minerals such as building stone. The mining and quarrying is managed so as to limit the damage being done to the ecosystem whilst still allowing this important economic activity. Other management includes removing plants and animal species that are considered invasive, reducing access to areas during sensitive periods (such as the bird nesting season), removing or reducing predators, and creating methods by which people can continue to rely on the ecosystem for an income in a sustainable manner.

Try this quiz and see how much you have learned about the management methods used to prevent the destruction of ecosystems and to allow us to sustainably use their resources.

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1.
In some forests, as trees are chopped down, they are replaced and allowed to grow to a reasonable size before being logged in turn. What is this known as?
Afforestation
Deforestation
Cycle logging
Reserve planting
Afforestation can also refer to the planting of trees for later logging or for other purposes, such as habitat renewal or to protect species of economic value
2.
There has been a shift away from clean forests towards leaving wood to rot on the forest floor. What does leaving tree trunks and branches to rot do for the ecosystem?
It discourages people from walking through the woodland
It draws up toxins from the soil
The fallen trees and branches may take root and regrow
It encourages wildlife and fungi
Many species have evolved to make use of fallen tree trunks and branches. By our removing this part of the ecosystem many species have suffered in the past
3.
What is pollarding?
Cutting the bark of a tree to allow it to die naturally
Digging up the roots of tree stumps to clear the land
A traditional method of woodland management involving hard pruning to keep the trees smaller
A modern method of growing trees by allowing the roots to grow into specific mediums and water troughs
By pollarding, the trees grow numerous small branches. These are cut and used for thatch, canes, fencing, firewood and more
4.
How do nature reserves help protect biodiversity?
The reserves allow animals and plants to exist and breed in safety
The reserves stop entire species being hunted or harvested
The reserves allow hunting in that area alone, protecting the rest of the landscape
The reserves prevent all access by people to the area
Reserves act as reservoirs for the ecosystem. Many marine species often breed in specific locations before moving into the wider ocean. By protecting the reefs, beaches and estuaries where breeding and the juvenile stages occur, the entire species is assisted. Harvesting of the plants and animals can still take place outside the reserve
5.
Which of the following is not a way recreational users of ecosystems (such as cyclists, walkers, and horse riders) can negatively impact the natural environment?
Footpath erosion
Taking money from the local economy
Leaving behind litter
Moving seeds of invasive species around the environment
The positive impacts made by careful users of the countryside far outweigh the negatives, but it's key to remember that there are some negative impacts
6.
Which of the following is not an example of sustainable logging?
Trees are only felled when they reach a particular height. This allows young trees a guaranteed life span and the forest will regain full maturity after around 30-50 years
Trees are removed individually using traditional methods such as pony logging. These trees are often removed to improve the overall health of the forest
Mimicking natural disasters such as forest fires, tornados and land-slides in areas where the ecosystems have adapted to this occurrence
Growing monocultures of fast-growing trees that are removed in one single occurrence. Often these faster-growing trees are conifers and similar
As well as logging, there are multiple ways that people can generate an income from forests in a sustainable manner. Coppicing, and harvesting of higher priced speciality products, can provide more than cutting down large amounts of trees does
7.
Which of the following is not a way that humans manage ecosystems?
Urban sprawl
Preventing poaching
Removing bracken from particular areas
Building footpaths
Much of the ways we interact with the natural environment can be seen as managing, from removing rats and other pests from islands, working to encourage tourism and recreational activities, and even reducing plastic bag use - even though it shows an indirect benefit to the environment
8.
Which of the following is not an advantage of ecotourism?
The number of tourists can disrupt breeding and nesting
Money is put into the economy, providing jobs for the locals
Sustainable hunting can give money to regions with no other tourist resources
Local infrastructure may be improved to take cars and provide places for the tourists to stay
Recently, tourists have gathered to see turtles come ashore in such large numbers that they have physically stopped the turtles finding places to nest. Whilst systems like hunting may seem disagreeable, it can be a better option than some
9.
What is agroforestry?
Removing trees to plant crops
Burning trees to enrich soils
Growing trees as a crop
Growing trees and crops at the same time
Growing crops among the trees allows farmers to use the shelter provided by the tree canopy. The trees reduce the soil erosion and the crops benifit from the nutrients resulting from decaying organic matter
10.
The 'Buy a Cardinal, Save a Tree' project encouraged fish keepers in economically advanced nations to buy aquarium fish caught in a sustainable manner by locals to the Amazon region. How does this encourage sustainability in the Amazon?
People are made aware of the importance of the ecosystem and will be more inclined to protect it
The local people protect the forest and the river system in order to protect the fish which provide a worthwhile income
The fish would have damaged the natural environment if left in the wild
Species kept in captivity can be released back into the wild at a later date
Projects which work with local populations to export high-value products which require the natural ecosystem to be maintained, encourage sustainable use of those resources. Fish can command 10 times the price as aquarium pets than they do as a food source
Author:  Ruth M

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