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Quarrying is the extraction of rocks and other materials from the Earth's surface. It has been around for a long time - as the agriculture in Britain gradually changed from nomadic to sedentary, people constructed permanent shelters for themselves and their livestock. As time progressed, the demand for rock increased. Collecting suitable rocks that were lying around on the surface could no longer satisfy the demand so ancient Britons started to dig it out of the ground. For your GCSE Geography exams, you need to know what factors affect the location of quarries plus the social, economic and environmental impacts, advantages and disadvantages.

Originally, the rocks in quarries were extracted by a variety of methods, one of which was to bore a hole in the rock and then drive a wedge into the hole. This cracked the rocks and broke pieces off that could then be shaped and used for construction.

When explosives were developed, this allowed quarrying of rocks to be carried out on a much larger scale and using fewer people. It's not just rocks that are quarried, we obtain other building materials like sand and gravel which are simply dug out using large excavators.

Quarries have a huge impact on the environment and boost local economies by providing jobs. In areas where there is very little opportunity for employment such as rural areas, a quarry is important to the local community. Without it, people would either have to commute or move away. Sometimes, but not always, the presence of a quarry will bring investment in the transport infrastructure, new and better roads will be built, improving access for locals as well as for the heavy quarry traffic. When a quarry reaches the end of its useful life, it can be landscaped which can provide new local amenities. If managed carefully, this could even act as a tourist attraction, bringing money from tourism into the local economy.

On the other hand, opening a quarry has a big impact on local wildlife as it leads to habitat loss. The noise of blasting also scares off wildlife and can be a nuisance to local residents. It is inevitable that quarrying will create dust, this gets picked up by the wind, even just a light breeze can spread dust over a large area. This settles on people's property, cars, gardens, trees and so on. Not only does this look unsightly, it can be harmful to the health of plants, animals and people. Quarries are usually opened in rural areas and are seldom close to railways, so the products are normally transported by road. This creates both noise and air pollution from engine fumes in the area near the quarry, which can harm wildlife, reducing biodiversity in the area. Air pollution also affects the local human population, particularly people with asthma or lung diseases. Some mineral quarries store waste in large lagoons, heavy rain can cause the lagoons to overflow and the containing walls to collapse, polluting nearby water courses and water supplies. In order to minimise the negative aspects of quarrying, laws exist that quarry owners must follow.

What is quarry restoration?
Providing meals for the quarry workers
Storing waste material within the quarry
Improving the quarry environment
Enlarging the size of the quarry
Restoration can take place during the life of the quarry or after quarrying has finished. Areas of the quarry that are no longer used can be landscaped to encourage wildlife or turned into a local amenity such as lakes, or parks where people can walk or cycle and so on
How do stone quarries reduce air pollution?
Use traditional ways of extracting rocks instead of using explosives
Spray water over the material being loaded
Cover the whole quarry with a roof
Filter the air leaving the quarry
They also wash the lorries before they leave the quarry and cover them to stop dust being blown off as they drive along
Where are quarries usually situated?
In the CBD of a city
On the edge of a city
In the countryside
At the seaside
Whilst there are some quarries in or on the edge of urban areas and by the sea, the majority are sited in rural areas
Quarried material is obtained by blasting. True or false?
Yes, it's true, all quarrying involves blasting
No, it's false, quarrying never involves the use of explosives
Yes, it's often but not always true, in a lot of quarries, blasting is used
It is impossible to know whether it is true or false
Sand and gravel quarries do not usually require the use of explosives but most other types of quarry do
How can stone quarries create air pollution?
Loading lorries
Exhaust fumes
All of the above
Air pollution from quarries is in the form of dust and fumes from the machinery that is used to move, crush, load and cut the rock
Which of the following could be destroyed when a quarry is opened?
Wildlife habitat
All of the above
There is a large demand for quarried materials
Which statement about quarrying is correct?
Working quarries contribute to the local economy
Working quarries are a good tourist attraction for a rural area
Working quarries attract wildlife to an era
Quarries have an unlimited life
A quarry can provide local people with much needed employment
How are materials usually transported from UK quarries?
By rail
By bus
In sacks loaded on pick-up trucks
In lorries
Only a few quarries, for example, Tunstead quarry near Buxton in Derbyshire, are close enough to the railway network to use rail as their main form of transport
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of quarrying?
Rural areas benefit from better access
Removes agricultural land
Noise disturbs wildlife
More local heavy traffic
Larger quarries need good transport communications so locals will benefit from better roads
Which of the following is not obtained by quarrying?
Iron ore
Rocks for making cement
Trees for making wooden beams for building
A nice easy question for you to illustrate some of the different types of materials that are quarried. It's not just rocks!
Author:  Kev Woodward

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