This GCSE Physics quiz takes a look at forces and turning effects. You use **turning forces** every day but probably don't even think about them - switching on a light and opening a door are just two examples. The turning effect of a force is called a **moment**. A moment is created when a force is applied to an object that is attached to a **pivot**. A pivot is a pin or shaft that fixes an object in place but also allows the object to move around it. You will probably have done calculations involving levers in your lessons, in the context of levers, the pivot is referred to as a **fulcrum**. There is also a word that describes the force that tends to produce rotation - **torque**. This word does have other meanings too and engineers use it instead of the scientific word moment.

1.

What is the turning effect of forces?

A moment

A while

An hour

A day

You can investigate moments using a ruler suspended from a clamp stand

2.

What is the formula for a moment?

Moment = *F x d*

Moment = *2F x d*

F (force) is measured in newtons

3.

In the above equation, what does *d* represent?

Distance of a beam

Distance from the line of action of the force to another force

Distance from the line of action of the force to the pivot

Distance to the pivot from the line of action of the force and back again

Measured in metres

4.

What is a moment measured in?

N

m

N m

N/m

A moment is measured in newton metres if the force is in newtons and the distance measured in metres

5.

What is the centre of mass of an object?

It is a point on the object where the whole weight of the object seems to act

It is the central point of an object

It is a point just above the top of an object

The centre of mass of an object is never found at a point on an object

For an object which has its weight evenly distributed, this will be along a line of symmetry

6.

What is stability?

The ability of an object to maintain its original position

An object which will oscillate around a point after being displaced but will never come to rest

An object which continues to move away from its position after being displaced

None of the above

Tilting an object creates a moment

7.

Which statement is true for a body in stable equilibrium?

It continues to move away from its original position after being displaced

It returns to its original position after being displaced slightly

Both of the above

Neither of the above

The edge of the object acts as the pivot

8.

Which statement is true for a body in unstable equilibrium?

It returns to its original position after being displaced slightly

It continues to move away from its original position after being displaced

Both of the above

Neither of the above

When the imaginary perpendicular line joining the centre of mass to the centre of the Earth is *outside* of the base of the object, the moment created makes the object fall over

9.

How can the stability of an object be increased?

Lower its centre of mass

Increase the area of its base

Both of the above

Neither of the above

The lower an object's centre of mass is to the floor, the more stable it will be. A larger base will also ensure the tipping point for an object is increased

10.

If the total clockwise moment around a pivot is 10 N m and the total moment about a pivot is zero, what is the size of the anticlockwise moment?

1 N m

5 N m

10 N m

20 N m

According to the principle of moments, when the total moment is zero, the anticlockwise and clockwise moments must be equal

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