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Forces - Hydraulics
A digger benefits from the use of hydraulics.

Forces - Hydraulics

This GCSE Physics quiz challenges you on forces and hydraulics. Pressure can be transmitted in all directions through all fluids. It is transmitted particularly efficiently through liquids. Although their particles are further apart than solids, they are still close enough together for liquids to be non-compressible. That means that when pressure is applied to the surface of a liquid its volume remains the same. If you fill a flexible container (for example, a balloon) with water and squeeze it, it will change shape but not volume. Areas that are not supported will bulge out, wherever they are showing that the pressure is transmitted in all directions through liquids.

This means that liquids can be used to transmit pressure over long distances and round corners by using tubes in a hydraulic system.

What are the units of pressure?
One pascal is a force of one newton acting over one metre squared so they are quite small units
What fact can be said of liquids?
They are virtually incompressible
Easily compressible
All liquids have the same molecules
No liquid can be mixed with another liquid
Using a liquid in a hydraulic system is a good idea, as the liquid transfers the pressure from one side of the system to the other. Changes in the area of a section of the system can allow the force to be multiplied
What is the formula used to calculate pressure in different parts of a hydraulic system?
P = F x A
A = F x P
P = FA
P = AF
Pressure is a measure of the force per unit area
A 2 cm x 5 cm rectangle within a hydraulic system experiences a force of 50 N. What is the pressure within the system?
50 Pa
500 Pa
5 Pa
50,000 Pa
Always check units given in the question. It is common for measurements to be given in cm2 when a formula requires them to be in m2. 10 cm2 = 0.001 m2
Different cross-sectional areas on the effort and load sides of a hydraulic system enables it to be used as a what?
Force multiplier
Mass multiplier
Electron multiplier
For a given pressure, if it acts over a larger area, the force will be greater
Which of the following can benefit from the use of hydraulics?
Glass cup
All of the above
Diggers and brakes are two common GCSE examples of the use of hydraulic systems
If a system has an area of 2 m2 at its effort side and 5 m2 at its load side, how much more force does the load side experience?
100% more
200% more
250% more
300% more
Simple proportion
How is pressure distributed in a liquid?
Non-uniformly in one direction
Equally in one direction
Equally in all directions
Non-uniformly in all directions
This is Pascal's law
What is the length of a rectangle within a hydraulic system having a width of 5 m that is subjected to a pressure of 15 Pa and a force of 15 N?
0.1 m
0.2 m
0.5 m
1 m
Rearrange the pressure equation to work out the area. You know the length of one side of the rectangle and so you can work out the length of the other
What is the pressure of a system which experiences a force of 100 N over an area of 10 m2?
1 Pa
10 Pa
100 Pa
0.1 Pa
100 divided by 10
You can find more about this topic by visiting BBC Bitesize - Pressure

Author:  Martin Moore

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