This GCSE Physics quiz on forces looks at momentum. All moving objects possess the property of momentum which is the tendency to keep moving in the same direction. The more momentum an object has, the more difficult it is to stop and the more difficult it is to change its direction. Momentum is a **vector** quantity ~ it has direction as well as a size. To change the momentum of an object requires the application of a force. It is calculated by multiplying the mass of an object by its velocity and is represented by the letter *p* in equations - *p = m x v*, so a small mass with a high velocity can have a greater momentum than a larger mass moving with a slower velocity.

When a resultant force acts on an object, it will cause a change in momentum that acts in the direction of the force. The longer this force is applied, the greater will be the change in momentum.

1.

In a closed system, the total momentum before an event is equal to what?

2

Twice the momentum after the event

The total momentum after the event

0

A closed system means that none of the energy within the system is lost to the environment. A closed system is often referred to as an ideal system

2.

A 0.5 kg trolley is pushed at a velocity of 1.2 m/s into a stationary trolley of mass 1.5 kg. The two trolleys stick to each other after the impact. Calculate the velocity of the two trolleys straight after the impact assuming a closed system.

0.3 m/s

1.2 m/s

0.6 m/s

1.6 m/s

Work out the value for the total momentum before the impact. The total momentum after the impact is the same (closed system). You know the combined mass of the two trolleys when they are stuck together, so a simple rearrangement of the momentum equation will allow you to calculate the new velocity

3.

An object of mass 1000 kg moving at a velocity of 5 m/s on a level surface, collides with a stationary object of mass 1500 kg. Calculate the momentum of the 1000 kg object before the collision.

2500 kg m/s

7500 kg m/s

5000 kg/s

5000 kg m/s

Numerically, options 3 and 4 were both correct, it all comes down to units!

4.

A car and a truck are both travelling along a motorway at 30 m/s and 20 m/s respectively. The car has a mass of 1,200 kg and the truck has a mass of 4,500 kg. Which one requires the greater force to stop?

Car

Truck

Both the same

More details are required to answer the question

The missing information is the time to bring the car and the truck to a halt. Even though the truck has a greater momentum, if it is allowed more time for braking, it could be brought to a halt with a lower braking force. To stop the truck in the same time as the car would require a greater change in momentum and therefore a greater force

5.

An object of mass 1000 kg moving at a velocity of 5 m/s on a level surface, collides with, and becomes attached to, a stationary object of mass 1500 kg. Calculate the velocity of the two moving objects after the collision.

3 m/s

5 m/s

2 m/s

2 kg/s

At GCSE, you can assume conservation of momentum applies in collision calculations

6.

What is momentum measured in?

Kilograms

Metres

Kilogram metres per second

Kilogram seconds per metre

Abbreviated to kg m s^{-1} or kg m/s. Can also be expressed as newton seconds, abbreviated to N s

7.

What is the momentum of an object which has a mass of 5 kg travelling at a speed of 2.5 m/s?

10 kg m/s

12.5 kg m/s

15 kg m/s

2 kg m/s

Straighforward use of the momentum equation. In your exam, unless the units are printed at the end of the answer space, you are expected to specify them

8.

A 0.5 kg trolley is pushed at a velocity of 1.2 m/s into a stationary trolley of mass 1.5 kg. The two trolleys stick to each other after the impact. Calculate the momentum of the 0.5 kg trolley before the collision.

1.8 kg m/s

0.6 kg m/s

2.4 kg m/s

0.75 kg m/s

9.

Momentum is a property of what?

Computers

Mobile phones

Moving objects

The Great Pyramid

Only moving objects have momentum, a stationary object will have no momentum

10.

What is the correct formula for momentum?

Some questions will demand that you use it in this form, but to answer other questions, you may have to rearrange it, so be prepared!

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