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Earthquakes and Volcanoes 02
This photo shows a geyser which is heated underground water that rises to the surface under extreme pressure.

Earthquakes and Volcanoes 02

This is our second KS3 Geography quiz on earthquakes and volcanoes. Earthquakes are measured with a seismometer which measures their magnitude. There are earthquakes every few days in the UK, but most are very small, with a magnitude of 2 or less. A magnitude of 3 or lower is rarely noticed by anyone and only about 20 per year are felt by people. In other parts of the world, where the Earth's plates are moving relative to each other, much larger earthquakes can happen. An earthquake with a magnitude of 7 can cause serious damage over large areas. A magnitude 9 earthquake is extremely destructive.

One of the pieces of evidence that was used to discover that the Earth's crust was broken into moving plates was first suggested at the start of the twentieth century. A German scientist named Alfred Wegener noticed that the coastlines and some rock formations of south America and Africa seemed to match together reasonably well. This suggested to him that the two continents had once been joined together. Further evidence comes from volcanoes. When the world's active volcanoes are marked on a map, they seem to appear only in narrow, well-defined areas. We now know that this is where the crustal plates meet.

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1.
Which ocean has a ring of earthquakes and volcanoes around its edge?
Arctic
Atlantic
Indian
Pacific
Known as the 'Pacific Ring of Fire'
2.
Large rocks thrown from a volcano have what name?
Bombs
Bricks
Lava lumps
Missiles
They can be thrown hundreds of feet in the air and are very dangerous to people and buildings near to an eruption
3.
Mauna Loa is a volcano in which American state?
Alaska
Hawaii
Montana
New Mexico
Hawaii has a national park called 'Volcanoes'
4.
An earthquake can be measured on what scale?
Reuter
Richter
Richthofen
Rickman
At the time of writing this quiz, the world's strongest recorded earthquake was magnitude 9.5. It occured in the Pacific Ocean near Chile in 1960
5.
Which layer is immediately below the earth's crust?
Core
Horizon
Mantle
Margin
The mantle is a much thicker layer than the crust
6.
What form does the mantle take?
Gas
Ice
Semi-liquid
Solid rock
Currents in the mantle are thought to be what move the crustal plates
7.
A volcano not expected to erupt again is called what?
Dead
Extinct
Idle
Obsolete
All the volcanoes in the British Isles are extinct. Phew!!
8.
Heated underground water rising to the surface under huge pressure is a...?
Geezer
Geyser
Giza
Gyeeser
Probably the best known geyser is 'Old Faithful' which is in Yellowstone National Park in the USA
9.
How can you tell that South America and Africa were once joined?
America and Africa both begin and end with 'a'
By the shape of their coastlines
The native people look alike
They both have major deserts
They split apart as the earth's plates moved, forming the Atlantic Ocean
10.
Earthquakes are most likely to happen where?
In the centre of plates
Near plate edges
Under the highest mountains
Where major rivers enter oceans
The edges of plates are very unstable areas - rocks don't move past each other very easily!
Author:  Jan Crompton

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