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Soil and Rocks 01
The white cliffs of Dover are chalk.

Soil and Rocks 01

This KS3 Science quiz looks at soil and rocks. The Earth has a layered structure, the part on which we live is called the crust. It is made from solid rocks which are covered in many places by soil. Soil is created from the weathering and erosion of the rocks, so the type of soil in an area depends on what rocks are in the region. Rocks are made from minerals that are joined together. If an area is mainly made from the rock limestone or chalk, the soil will contain a lot of calcium carbonate because that is the main mineral in those rocks.

There are three main groups of rock - sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. Sedimentary rocks are formed where particles of rock that have been weathered and transported are deposited in layers. This can happen in rivers, lakes, oceans and on land in deserts.

Igneous rocks are made from molten magma that has cooled and solidified. Magma that has come out of a volcano before going solid is called lava. Metamorphic rocks are formed when any type of rock has been crushed or heated (or both!). It is important to remember that a metamorphic rock has never been melted - if it had, it would be an igneous rock! These groups of rock are linked by the rock cycle.

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1.
Granite is an intrusive igneous rock. Which best describes its characteristics?
A hard rock, large crystals due to slow cooling of magma
A hard rock, small crystals due to fast cooling of lava
A soft rock, large crystals due to slow cooling of magma
A soft rock, small crystals due to fast cooling of magma
Aberdeen in Scotland is known as the Granite City because a lot of the public buildings have been built from the local rock which is a greyish-coloured granite
2.
Which of the following is a metamorphic rock?
Basalt
Limestone
Mudstone
Slate
Igneous rock, Basalt, is the most common rock on Earth
3.
Which statement about the rock cycle is true?
Erosion is the weathering and carrying away of rock sediment
Freeze thaw is cold weather
Lava is molten rock inside the Earth
Transportation is the covering and squashing of layers
Freeze-thaw is a type of weathering that occurs in cold places. Lava is molten rock that has reached the surface of the Earth. Transportation is the movement of weathered particles and forms part of the process of erosion
4.
Sandstone is grainy and crumbly and may contain fossils. Its rock type is.....
Igneous
Metamorphic
Sedimentary
Soft
70% of all rocks on Earth are sedimentary and they are the only type to contain good fossils
5.
Which type of soil will have good drainage, meaning water runs through quickly?
Clay
Loam
Sandy
Silt
The particles are larger than silt and clay so water can get through more easily. Loam contains a lot of humus which absorbs water and keeps it from draining away. It is the best sort of soil for growing plants in
6.
Which rock is composed mainly of calcium carbonate?
Chalk
Pumice
Quartz
Sandstone
The white cliffs of Dover are chalk. Limestone is the other important rock that is made from the mineral calcium carbonate. At GCSE, you will find out just how many products that you use every single day of your life involve limestone somewhere in their production
7.
Which of the following is the BEST definition of weathering?
Breaking up of rocks at the surface
Change to liquid caused by intense heat
Covering and squashing layers to form rock
Moving of rocks from one place to another
There are several different types of weathering which can be grouped as mechanical or chemical
8.
Which type of rock has been formed from hot liquid rock called magma?
Igneous
Metamorphic
Mixture
Sedimentary
Igneous comes from the Greek word meaning fire
9.
Which one of these describes a metamorphic rock?
A black rock formed on the Earth's surface
A glass type rock formed by volcanoes
A rock formed from grains of sand squeezed together
A white rock, showing layers formed by heat and pressure on chalk or limestone
Metamorphic comes from Greek words meaning 'change' and 'form'. This is actually a description of marble
10.
Which one of these is NOT a component of soil?
Humus
Magma
Rock particles
Water
Magma is molten rock
Author:  Sue Davison

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