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Unit 1 - Cloning
Adult cell cloning was first demonstrated in frogs.

Unit 1 - Cloning

In GCSE Biology students will look at cloning - the process by which identical genetic copies can be made of a donor organism. This quiz tests how much they have learned about how cloning is possible.

Plants, single celled organisms and and a few animals (e.g. sea urchin) use asexual reproduction to make exact genetic copies of themselves. These exact copies are called clones. Humans have been cloning plants for centuries by taking cuttings and scientists succeeded in cloning a frog in 1958. This was followed by clones of fish in the 1960s and 1970s but it wasn't until 1997 that the first large animal, a sheep called Dolly, was cloned. Since then, other large animals have also been cloned, including pets. As the technique has been developed, it has been possible to combine cloning with genetic engineering

There are two main techniques of large animal cloning. The first involves separating the stem cells (cells which have not yet become specialised) of a naturally fertilised embryo and implanting the individual cells into a host mother. The second involves removing the nucleus from an unfertilised egg cell and replacing it with the nucleus from a donor animal.

It would be possible to create human clones in the same way but there are many ethical issues. In your GCSE exam you may be asked to use your scientific knowledge of cloning to discuss the pros and cons of human cloning. If you do get such a question, make sure that you show that you know and understand the issues and offer arguments from both sides.

Now play this quiz all about cloning organisms to see how much you know about surrogates, gametes, enucleating and donors.

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1.
Cloning is an example of which type of reproduction?
Sexual
Asexual
Binary fission
Conjugation
Cloning always produces individuals who are genetically identical to the donor and each other
2.
Which gamete cell is needed for cloning?
Sperm
Egg
Brain
Skin
It is the egg cell and not the sperm that develops into an embryo after fertilisation so it is not possible to use the sperm cell for cloning
3.
A special type of cloning splits apart cells from a developing animal. What is this type of cloning called?
Embryo transplant cloning
Donor cell cloning
Egg cell cloning
Surrogate cloning
Large numbers of genetically identical offspring, with the desired characteristics, can be produced using embryo transplant cloning
4.
Adult cell cloning was first demonstrated in which type of animal?
Sheep
Frogs
Dogs
Chickens
This happened in 1958 and was carried out by a scientist called John Gurden at Oxford university
5.
Cloning has not been demonstrated in which of the following?
Plants
Sheep
Humans
Cattle
It is too controversial to do this but there are some speculative fiction films that attempt to deal with this topic
6.
During cloning, what is an electrical current used for?
To stimulate cell division
To destroy the egg cell nucleus
To start growth of the egg
To remove the contents of the fused cells
When cell division has started, the cloned egg cell can be implanted into the surrogate mother
7.
The cloned animal has the same DNA as which of the following?
The father
The mother
The surrogate
The donor
The DNA is contained in the nucleus of every cell. Since the donor provides a complete nucleus, the cloned animal will have the same DNA
8.
Where is the cloned animal grown?
Test tube
Ovary
Uterus (womb)
Oven
Cloning of animals requires that the embryo is grown naturally in the uterus of a female of the species being cloned
9.
What is the animal that gives birth to the cloned animal known as?
A carrier
A suffragette
A surrogate
A sufferer
The cloned egg cells must be stimulated to grow before they can be placed into the uterus of the surrogate mother
10.
Enucleate means the removal of what?
A cell
A nucleus
An egg
A sperm
The nucleus is removed to make space for the DNA of the donor animal

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