 Increasing the sample size, such as the number of blueberries, can increase precision.

# Unit 4 - Precision of Data

In this GCSE Biology quiz we look at precision of data. Precision is a measure of repeatability or reproducibility of scientific measurements. It is the degree to which repeated measurements, under the same experimental conditions, give the same result.

Accuracy is not the same thing as precision. Accuracy is about measurements being as close to the true value as possible. Precision is the measurement being the same value each time the experiment is performed. A measurement system can be accurate but not reliable (precise) or vice versa.

Precision is written as a percentage. It tells you how precisely you can use a piece of equipment to take a reading. It is calculated by subtracting the maximum percentage error from 100%.

Take for example a balance that is set to read in grams. If you take a reading of 10 grams, it could in fact be anywhere between 9.5 and 10.5 grams. That is one gram difference on the reading of 10 grams - that is a 10% error so in this case, the precision of the reading would be 100% minus 10% i.e. 90% precision.

If the balance is now set to read in tenths of a gram, a reading of 10 grams could be as low as 9.9 grams or as high as 10.1 grams. The error could be plus or minus 0.1 grams. Now this is only a total of two hundredths (i.e. 2%) of the 10 gram reading so the precision is now 100% minus 2% or 98% precision.

Precision is also applied in a similar way to a set of results or data. You first work out the mean value. Then you take the difference between the lowest and highest result and calculate it as a percentage of the mean value. Subtract that from 100% to find the precision of the experiment.

Precise measurements are ones in which there is very little spread about the mean value. Precision depends only on the extent of random errors which is why it gives no indication of how close the results are to the true value and is not a measure of accuracy.

Is it precise results or accurate ones which can be repeated? Try this quiz see how well you understand the precision of data.

1.
Resolution of a measuring device is...
the largest change giving a result
the smallest change possible which can give a result
any change leading to a result
the best result possible
Resolution of the human eye is the minimum distance of two dots so the eye can see them as two dots. For most people this is 0.2mm
2.
If there is a systematic error within the experiment, this will always be a problem.
Precision
Reliability
Factuality
Accuracy
Errors such as poor measuring techniques cannot be improved simply by repetition. The measurements will always lack accuracy
3.
Accuracy is...
the same as reliable
the same as precision
unreliable
close to the true value
Results can be of high precision but low accuracy
4.
Precision means that the measurements are...
anomalous
unreliable
repeatable
inaccurate
It is measured as a percentage
5.
Increasing the sample size can increase this.
Accuracy
Results
Validity
Precision
Repeating an experiment many times is a technique used to improve precision
6.
Reliable results are just like reliable people, they are always...
at the same time
pleasant
the same
anomalous
Not quite the same but very consistent
7.
When measurements are both accurate and reliable they are described as...
invalid
valid
correct
incorrect
In the evaluation of your investigations you are expected to say how precise, accurate and valid you think that your results are
8.
Unreliable data will have a large...
mean
data
range
value
A large range gives a lower percentage for the precision
9.
Precise data will always have a value very close to the...
mean
range
anomaly
edge
This does not necessarily indicate accuracy, it simply means that the method of an experiment produces repeatable results
10.
Another word for reliable.
Precise
Accurate
Anomalous
Unreasonable
Precision and reliability are the same thing in terms of scientific experiments
Author:  Donna Maria Davidson

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