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Limestone - Uses of
Cement is mixed with sand and water to produce mortar.

Limestone - Uses of

The formation and uses of limestone is one of the topics covered in GCSE Chemistry. This is the second of two quizzes on limestone in which we look at some of the uses of limestone as a building material.

Limestone is an abundant rock that can be used for a number of purposes. It was formed millions of years ago on the bed of relatively shallow tropical seas. It consists mainly of the mineral calcium carbonate which comes from two sources - shells and precipitation from seawater. There are many types of limestone, some hard, some soft. Rain is naturally slightly acidic because it contains dissolved carbon dioxide which forms a weak acid with water. Carbonates are one of the substances that react with both strong and weak acids, so slowly, over millions of years, rain will dissolve limestone to form some fascinating natural features like limestone pavements, caves, stalactites and stalagmites. This corrosion is accelerated by human influence since burning fossil fuels introduces sulfur and nitrogen oxides into the air which makes rain even more acidic.

There are large deposits of limestone in the UK which are quarried to provide us with this valuable resource. Many places where limestone appears at the surface of the Earth are areas of great natural beauty, for example the Peak District of Derbyshire. Quarrying raises many issues for local communities and the environment, for example, the destruction of natural habitats and local beauty spots whilst at the same time providing work for local people.

The building industry is a large consumer of limestone and its products, but there are so many more places where it is used. You are not expected to know all of them but it does help if you are aware of some e.g. cosmetics, food manufacturing and agriculture. The GCSE syllabus only asks that you know about the uses of limestone related to the building industry, so that means knowing that it is used directly as building stones and road foundations, and indirectly for making cement, mortar, glass and concrete. For your GCSE, you will be required to consider and evaluate the environmental, social and economic effects of quarrying and using limestone for building. To do this, you need to be able to compare the benefits of using limestone against the negative aspects of quarrying. In the end though, it all comes down to the fact that without limestone, life would be very different so people on both sides of the argument need to make compromises. You also should be able to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using limestone, cement and concrete when compared to other building materials. You don't need to learn the properties of a load of other materials, the data you need will be given to you in the exam.

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Which of the following is NOT a direct use for limestone?
Making cement
Making concrete
Making glass
Making drainpipes
Drainpipes are usually made from the polymer PVC, or metals such as zinc and galvanised steel
Cement is mixed with sand and water to produce...
Mortar is used to 'glue' bricks and building stones together
Which of the following is NOT an advantage that concrete has over raw limestone as a building material?
It can be reinforced using steel rods to make it stronger
It can be mixed on site
It is easy to cut into blocks
It is less prone to chemical weathering
It is hard to cut concrete so it is usually moulded into the shape required
What type of rock is limestone?
It is formed on the sea bed by layers of sediment that contain high levels of calcium carbonate
Limestone is a fairly common rock in the UK. How was it formed?
By volcanoes
By heat and pressure under the ground
From the remains of dead sea creatures
From molten rock
In some places, you can see these remains as fossils
Powdered limestone can be heated to very high temperatures with sand and sodium carbonate to make another building material. This is called...
Natural glass exists where sand has been heated to high temperatures, for example, where a meteorite has crashed into the surface of the Earth
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using limestone as a building material?
It is abundant
It is environmentally friendly
It is relatively easy to cut
It is a natural material
Quarrying of limestone is not particularly 'green' for a variety of reasons
Limestone is sometimes spread on fields and lakes. Why?
To improve the water/soil aeration
To help fish breathe
To make the soil better
To neutralise acidic soil or water
Limestone is mainly calcium carbonate which reacts with acids in the soil or water
Pick the correct combination of negative aspects of quarrying for limestone.
Jobs for the local community; increased traffic in the area; destruction of habitats; dust on roads/in air
Noisy; destruction of habitats; dust on roads/in air; improved local transport links
Destruction of habitats; noisy; visual pollution; increased traffic in the area
Increased traffic in the area; improved local transport links; jobs for the local community; increase in local trade
Be prepared to give both advantages and disadvantages in an exam
Limestone is made into cement by heating with powdered clay. Cement can be mixed with water, sand and crushed rock. What building material does this produce?
This material is strong and can be moulded into almost any shape
Author:  Kate Gardiner

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