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Geology - Minerals
This mineral has been mined in Iran since the ancient Persian era.

Geology - Minerals

A substance must be a solid and have a crystalline structure to be classed as a true mineral. In addition, it must be a natural homogeneous substance with a defined chemical composition. Minerals can be stunning to look at. They are used to make everyday objects - including the computer you are currently looking at.

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1.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Archaeodontosaurus
Copper
Diamond
Magnetite
Feldspar
  • Category: Oxide minerals - Spinel group
  • Chemical formula: iron(II,III) oxide, Fe3O4
  • Strunz classification: 04.BB.05
  • Best known as being strongly attracted to magnets.
  • One form of this mineral is lodestone, a natural magnet.
  • This mineral will rust if kept in a moist area.
  • Is used in the coating process of boilers.
2.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Aelwyn
Kyanite
Diamond
Aluminium
Fluorite
  • Category: Silicate mineral
  • Chemical formula: Al2SiO5
  • An attractive mineral, almost always blue in colour.
  • Unusual in that it has a large variation of hardness in the same crystal face.
  • Has a high melting point and low thermal conductance.
  • Used in the manufacture of spark plugs, ceramic products and dishware.
3.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of JJ_Harrison
Tin
Malachite
Magnetite
Quartz
  • Category: Silicate mineral
  • Chemical formula: Silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2)
  • Strunz classification: 04.DA.05
  • One of the most well-known minerals on earth.
  • It is a vital constituent of many rocks.
  • Is used as oscillators in radios, watches and pressure gauges.
  • Silicon semiconductors found in computers are made from this mineral.
4.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Fire & Hammers1
Fluorite
Kyanite
Malachite
Cadmium
  • Category: Halide mineral
  • Chemical formula: CaF2
  • Strunz classification: 03.AB.25
  • A popular mineral which occurs naturally in all colours.
  • One of better known fluorescent minerals.
  • Blue John (found in Castleton, Derbyshire) is a variety of this mineral.
  • It is extensively used in the field of optics.
5.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Arpingstone
Feldspar
Turquoise
Cadmium
Graphite
  • Category: Phosphate minerals
  • Chemical formula: CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8ยท4H2O
  • Strunz classification: 08.DD.15
  • This mineral is found worldwide, although it is mostly concentrated in the USA.
  • It has been mined in Iran since the ancient Persian era.
  • Was brought to Europe from Turkey and its name is derived from an Old French word for 'Turkish'.
6.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of www.flickr.com/people/nexus2006/
Diamond
Ice
Talc
Quartz
  • Category: Native Minerals
  • Chemical formula: C
  • Strunz classification: 01.CB.10a
  • The hardest known substance in the world.
  • It is also the greatest conductor of heat and has the highest melting point.
  • Used extensively in jewellery.
  • Commonly known as "a girl's best friend".
7.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of http://www.irocks.com/
Magnetite
Beryl
Iron
Copper
  • Category: Native metal
  • Chemical formula: Cu
  • Strunz classification: 01.AA.05
  • One of the most famous and useful metals.
  • Has been used as coinage for thousands of years.
  • When weathered, it is coated with a green tarnish.
  • It is an excellent conductor of electricity, second only to silver.
8.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Reno Chris
Copper
Feldspar
Beryl
Talc
  • Category: Silicate mineral
  • Chemical formula: Be3Al2(SiO3)6
  • In its pure form, this mineral is colourless.
  • The green variety of this mineral is known as the precious gem, Emerald.
  • The crystals are transparent to translucent.
  • This mineral forms some of the most prized gemstones.
9.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of http://www.irocks.com/
Nickel
Turquoise
Malachite
Emerald
  • Category: Carbonate mineral
  • Chemical formula: Cu2CO3(OH)2
  • Strunz classification: 05.BA.10
  • A very popular mineral, not least because of its striking colour and bands.
  • It has been polished and carved into ornaments for thousands of years.
  • In some ancient civilisations it was considered a protection from evil if worn as jewellery.
10.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of emagic
Iron
Graphite
Lead
Tin
  • Category: Native element mineral
  • Chemical formula: C
  • Strunz classification: 01.CB.05a
  • Has the same chemical composition as diamond, but a very different atomic structure.
  • A brittle mineral which needs careful handling.
  • Most of the commercially mined mineral is used for pencil fillings.

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