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Geology - Minerals
This mineral has been mined in Iran since the ancient Persian era.

Geology - Minerals

A substance must be a solid and have a crystalline structure to be classed as a true mineral. In addition, it must be a natural homogeneous substance with a defined chemical composition. Minerals can be stunning to look at. They are used to make everyday objects - including the computer you are currently looking at.

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1.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of http://www.irocks.com/
Nickel
Turquoise
Malachite
Emerald
  • Category: Carbonate mineral
  • Chemical formula: Cu2CO3(OH)2
  • Strunz classification: 05.BA.10
  • A very popular mineral, not least because of its striking colour and bands.
  • It has been polished and carved into ornaments for thousands of years.
  • In some ancient civilisations it was considered a protection from evil if worn as jewellery.
2.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of www.flickr.com/people/nexus2006/
Diamond
Ice
Talc
Quartz
  • Category: Native Minerals
  • Chemical formula: C
  • Strunz classification: 01.CB.10a
  • The hardest known substance in the world.
  • It is also the greatest conductor of heat and has the highest melting point.
  • Used extensively in jewellery.
  • Commonly known as "a girl's best friend".
3.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Aelwyn
Kyanite
Diamond
Aluminium
Fluorite
  • Category: Silicate mineral
  • Chemical formula: Al2SiO5
  • An attractive mineral, almost always blue in colour.
  • Unusual in that it has a large variation of hardness in the same crystal face.
  • Has a high melting point and low thermal conductance.
  • Used in the manufacture of spark plugs, ceramic products and dishware.
4.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of http://www.irocks.com/
Magnetite
Beryl
Iron
Copper
  • Category: Native metal
  • Chemical formula: Cu
  • Strunz classification: 01.AA.05
  • One of the most famous and useful metals.
  • Has been used as coinage for thousands of years.
  • When weathered, it is coated with a green tarnish.
  • It is an excellent conductor of electricity, second only to silver.
5.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of JJ_Harrison
Tin
Malachite
Magnetite
Quartz
  • Category: Silicate mineral
  • Chemical formula: Silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2)
  • Strunz classification: 04.DA.05
  • One of the most well-known minerals on earth.
  • It is a vital constituent of many rocks.
  • Is used as oscillators in radios, watches and pressure gauges.
  • Silicon semiconductors found in computers are made from this mineral.
6.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Arpingstone
Feldspar
Turquoise
Cadmium
Graphite
  • Category: Phosphate minerals
  • Chemical formula: CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8ยท4H2O
  • Strunz classification: 08.DD.15
  • This mineral is found worldwide, although it is mostly concentrated in the USA.
  • It has been mined in Iran since the ancient Persian era.
  • Was brought to Europe from Turkey and its name is derived from an Old French word for 'Turkish'.
7.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Archaeodontosaurus
Copper
Diamond
Magnetite
Feldspar
  • Category: Oxide minerals - Spinel group
  • Chemical formula: iron(II,III) oxide, Fe3O4
  • Strunz classification: 04.BB.05
  • Best known as being strongly attracted to magnets.
  • One form of this mineral is lodestone, a natural magnet.
  • This mineral will rust if kept in a moist area.
  • Is used in the coating process of boilers.
8.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Reno Chris
Copper
Feldspar
Beryl
Talc
  • Category: Silicate mineral
  • Chemical formula: Be3Al2(SiO3)6
  • In its pure form, this mineral is colourless.
  • The green variety of this mineral is known as the precious gem, Emerald.
  • The crystals are transparent to translucent.
  • This mineral forms some of the most prized gemstones.
9.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of Fire & Hammers1
Fluorite
Kyanite
Malachite
Cadmium
  • Category: Halide mineral
  • Chemical formula: CaF2
  • Strunz classification: 03.AB.25
  • A popular mineral which occurs naturally in all colours.
  • One of better known fluorescent minerals.
  • Blue John (found in Castleton, Derbyshire) is a variety of this mineral.
  • It is extensively used in the field of optics.
10.
What is this mineral known as?
Photograph courtesy of emagic
Iron
Graphite
Lead
Tin
  • Category: Native element mineral
  • Chemical formula: C
  • Strunz classification: 01.CB.05a
  • Has the same chemical composition as diamond, but a very different atomic structure.
  • A brittle mineral which needs careful handling.
  • Most of the commercially mined mineral is used for pencil fillings.

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