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The World Beyond
As well as in England, civil war was breaking out elsewhere in the world.

The World Beyond

The World Beyond looks at historical dates in the wider world.

The Wars of the Roses was a major event in England's history. The outcome of the war would change not only the future of the nation, but possibly that of the world. Across the globe beyond England's shores other equally important events were taking place. Find out about some historical dates which occurred in the wider world during England's Wars of the Roses.

1.
In 1478 the Principality of Muscovy (modern day Moscow) annexed the nearby state of Novgorod in a step towards a unification of Russia. Who was the Muscovian leader at the time of Novgorod's capture?
Ivan the Blind
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Handsome
Ivan the Great
During Ivan's 43-year reign he expanded the borders of his lands threefold, defeated the Golden Horde and built the Kremlin which stands in Moscow to this day. His grandson, Ivan the Terrible, was to be the first Tsar of Russia
2.
On 17th July 1453, the English were defeated by the French in the Battle of Castillon. This event ended the Hundred Years War and drove the English from all of France save for the Channel Islands and which town?
Caen
Cherbourg
Le Havre
Calais
The defeat was a humiliation for the English who had once controlled lands stretching from the English Channel to the borders of Spain. The loss was a major factor in bringing about the Wars of the Roses as it drove England's King Henry VI, who had at one time been proclaimed the King of France, into one of his bouts of madness
3.
Which notorious organisation first appeared in 1478?
The Knights Templar
The Mafia
The Spanish Inquisition
The Priory of Sion
The Inquisition was set up by the Spanish monarch to ensure that everyone in the kingdom was practising Catholic Orthodoxy. The Inquisition tried an estimated 150,000 people for heresy, approximately 5,000 of whom were executed. The Inquisition finally ended in 1834, some 356 years after it began
4.
On 20th August 1470, the Battle of Lipnic took place in which the small principality of Moldavia, in modern day Romania, took on and beat an invading Mongol army, despite suffering huge losses. By what name was this Mongol army known?
The Golden Horde
The Dreadful Multitude
The Mighty Swathe
The Fearless Host
It is not known why the name was given. It may be a reference to the colour of their tents or possibly their perceived wealth. The victorious leader of the Moldavians, Stephen The Great, was made a saint in 1992 by the Romanian Orthodox Church
5.
On 19th October 1469, the seed of a new nation was sewn with the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, each heir to a kingdom. What was the name of the united kingdom ruled over by their daughter Joanna I?
Italy
Russia
Spain
Poland
Ferdinand was to become the king of Aragon and Isabella was heir to the kingdom of Castille. When the two came into their inheritances Ferdinand became ruler of both realms and their heir, Joanna I, became the first monarch of the united Spain in 1504
6.
In 1485, the same year that the Battle of Bosworth brought the Wars of the Roses to an end, elsewhere in the world a military coup overthrew an Emperor. Praudha Raya was ousted and replaced by Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya in the Empire of Vijayanagara. Whereabouts in the world was Vijayanagara?
Modern day Myanmar
Modern day India
Modern day Laos
Modern day Thailand
The Vijayanagara Empire covered the southern half of what is now India and was founded in 1336. It endured for more than 300 years until its eventual break up in 1646
7.
On 29th May 1453, when the future Richard III was 6 months old, the ancient Roman Empire finally crumbled after the fall of which city?
Rome
Athens
Constantinople
Alexandria
The city, known today as Istanbul, had been the capital of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine) Empire since its founding in 330AD. It had long been under threat from the invading Ottoman Empire and it finally fell after a 7 week siege. The Roman Empire, which had lasted for 1,480 years, was no more
8.
As well as in England, civil war was breaking out elsewhere in the world. Starting in 1467 and lasting for nearly a century and a half, the Sengoku Period of civil war took place in which country?
Vietnam
Japan
China
Korea
The civil war, fought between rival warlords, did not come to an end until 1615 when the country was unified by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The war culminated in the Battle of Sekigahara, in which 170,000 men fought; roughly the same as the amount of men who fought at Waterloo, 200 years later - and far, far more than fought in any battle of the Wars of the Roses
9.
The Ottomans attempted to extend their empire further into Europe by attacking the principality of Wallachia in modern day Romania. In 1462 the Ottomans retreated after being defeated in several skirmishes by Prince Vlad III. Vlad inspired which character who is featured in a classic horror novel?
Count Dracula
Doctor Jekyll
Baron Frankenstein
Doctor Moreau
Vlad's family name was Draculesti and he is thought to be one of the inspirations for Bram Stoker's vampire, Dracula. He is also known as Vlad the Impaler for his habit of mounting his still-living enemies on spikes. It is said that the Ottomans retreated from Wallachia after discovering 20,000 of their comrades impaled in this way
10.
On 15th April 1469 Nanak Dev was born in what is now Pakistan. He is the founder of which religion?
Sunni Islam
Sikhism
Shia Islam
Hinduism
Guru Nanak was the very first of the Sikh Gurus and his birthday is celebrated as the festival of Kartik Puranmashi. The new faith proved to be popular and the Sikh religion today has almost 30 million followers

 

Author:  Graeme Haw

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