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The June Advance
The Russian attack commenced on 4th June 1916 and was successful.

The June Advance

The June Advance is about the Brusilov Offensive.

In order to relieve the German attack on Verdun, the Allies were to launch the Battle of the Somme in June 1916. In an attempt to take German forces from the Western Front the Russians were also to launch an attack on the Eastern Front at the same time. This was the Brusilov Offensive. It was a victory for the Russians, though not as successful as hoped, and it ranks as one of the largest campaigns of the entire war.

1.
The Brusilov Offensive took place in which modern-day country?
Bulgaria
Ukraine
Belarus
Russia
The battle occurred on the borders of the then Russian Empire with the Austro-Hungarian Empire around the towns of Lutsk, Kovel and Lviv. These are today in the north-western corner of Ukraine
2.
The advance trenches from which the Russian attack was to begin, were how far from the Austrian's front line?
As close as 75 yards (69 metres)
As close as 100 yards (91 metres)
As close as 150 yards (137 metres)
As close as 200 yards (183 metres)
Because the Russian troops were attacking several areas at the same time, there was no possibility of reinforcements. All men were stationed as close to the enemy as possible to give them the best chance of success. The attack was to be complete victory or total defeat
3.
The Brusilov Offensive is the only campaign of the First World War which is named after what?
A county
A type of gun
A town
A serving commander
The Russian forces in the campaign were commanded by General-Adjutant Aleksei Brusilov. In May 1917 Brusilov was made the Commander in Chief of the Russian Army, however just two months later he was removed from this position after the failure of the Kerensky Offensive
4.
The Russian attack commenced on 4th June 1916 and was successful. How long did it take until the town of Lutsk was taken from the Austrians?
Four hours
Eight hours
Four days
Eight days
The attack began with a brief artillery barrage instead of the usual more lengthy bombardments which did more damage but gave the defenders time to bring in reinforcements. The Russian troops then broke through the Austrian lines and Lutsk was taken on 8th June 1916
5.
The Russian attack was spread over how long a line?
50 miles (80 km)
100 miles (160 km)
200 miles (320 km)
300 miles (480 km)
In preparation for the battle Brusilov was urged to concentrate his forces on a smaller area, giving more chance of a breakthrough, but the Russian commander refused to change his plan
6.
The Brusilov campaign introduced a new type of tactical soldier to the world of warfare. Which one was it?
Shock Troops
Alpine Troops
Special Forces
Paratroopers
Brusilov's strategy was to use shock troops to attack weak points in the Austrian defences. Unfortunately the Russians did not realise the full potential of this new kind of warfare - it was ironically the Germans who were to grasp the idea with their own 'storm troopers', which they utilized well in 1918. Brusilov's idea is also thought to have been the inspiration for Germany's 'Blitzkrieg' tactics of WWII
7.
The early success of the Brusilov Offensive persuaded which country to join the war on the side of the Allies?
Bulgaria
Albania
Romania
Croatia
Romania had hoped to take its historical province Transylvania back from the Austrian Empire. Seeing the Austrians driven back, Romania seized the opportunity. Their efforts failed however, and they withdrew from the war in August 1917, having to pay reparation to the Germans, including two million tons of grain which was taken from Romanian farmers
8.
The Russians who had broken through enemy lines became exposed and needed backup from the forces under Russian General Alexei Evert. His part of the attack, scheduled for June 4th, actually commenced on what date?
June 8th
June 18th
June 28th
July 8th
The attack, when it did come, was a weak one and was checked by the Germans. General Evert had opposed Brusilov's tactics before the start of the campaign, favouring a more defensive strategy. This may be why his own attack was both late and lacked the success of Brusilov's
9.
The delay of Evert's attack allowed the Germans to move reinforcements to the battleground. If the attack had gone as hoped, Brusilov would have fought a much smaller enemy and in all probability taken which nation out of the war?
Germany
Italy
Austria
Poland
Without the German reinforcements the Austrians would probably have given way to Brusilov. To prevent the collapse of the Austrian forces, the Germans would have had to redeploy huge numbers of men from the Western Front and this may well have spelled their defeat, but it was not to be. As is often the case, one man's error cost the lives of thousands
10.
Although it was not the success it could have been, the Brusilov Offensive is considered to be a victory for the Allies because of the crippling effect it had on the Austrian army. Despite this victory, how many men were casualties of the campaign?
An estimated 80,000 men
An estimated 160,000 men
An estimated 800,000 men
An estimated 1.6 million men
The casualty figures of the time are not reliable. Some estimate that as many as 2.3 million men were killed or injured during the campaign, while others give estimates as low as 900,000

 

Author:  Graeme Haw

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