Orange berries on a tree
Paleoindians were hunter-gatherers and ate berries.

Grade 4 Reading Information - Structure

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Every nonfiction text is written in a certain structure. Students should analyze the text for how the events, ideas, concepts and information is written. Some of these types of structure include chronological order, comparison, cause/effect and problem/solution. After the student has identified the structure, then he or she can identify the parts of the text that led to this conclusion. In this quiz, the students will identify and describe the structure of a text.

Story 1 - Paleoindians

The Paleoindians were the very first group of people who came to America. These people needed food. They were called hunter-gatherers because that is how they got their food. They hunted wild animals and gathered berries and other fruits and vegetables they saw. Before they came to America, they had already hunted many of the animals and gathered many of the berries they could find. Of course, more animals would be born and more berries and fruits would grow, but that would take some time. The Paleoindians needed food now or they would starve to death. When the frozen water that separated Asia from America which is located near Alaska began to melt, it exposed some of the land below it. The Paleoindians could now cross over this land bridge into a new area of land with more animals and plants. So, the Paleoindians did just that. They crossed the bridge into America and continued to move further south hunting and gathering.

Story 2 - Paleoindians

A large group of people known as the Paleoindians were living in Asia near Alaska. The only part that separated Asia from Alaska was a body of water. Around 14,000 BCE, this body of frozen water melted and subsided, so the Paleoindians were able to cross over the land. As hunter-gatherers, these groups of people would periodically travel for hundreds of years over to America. Over time, these people would migrate south into Canada. They would hunt small wild animals and pick berries or other fruits that they could find. Usually they would stay in one area for a short period of time before moving further south or they would eventually settle there. Some Paleoindians settled as far south as South America.

Story 3 - Paleoindians

For the most part, Paleoindians hunted small game animals and picked parts of plants. These hunter-gathers spent the majority of their time finding food and surviving in the harsh cold climates. Eventually, a civilization was established many years later. In a civilization, they would stay and settle in one area. The Paleoindians were nomadic wanderers. Those in a civilization would divide up the jobs in their settled area. Not everyone hunted or gathered food. Some of them built their shelters and others may have made the clothing or weapons for the population. However, each Paleoindian had to do each job for himself or herself.
1.
What does it mean if a text is written in chronological order?
It is written by describing an event or two and the result of what happened after it.
It is written by explaining the similarities and differences between two topics.
It is written in date order or the order in which the events happened.
It is written by identifying a conflict and then the way it is resolved.
"Chron" means time, so chronological order would mean time or date order.
2.
What does it mean if a text is written with a comparison structure?
It is written by describing an event or two and the result of what happened after it.
It is written by explaining the similarities and differences between two topics.
It is written in date order or the order in which the events happened.
It is written by identifying a conflict and then the way it is resolved.
When a text is comparing two things, it is showing the similarities and differences between two topics.
3.
What does it mean if a text is written with a cause/effect structure?
It is written by describing an event or two and the result of what happened after it.
It is written by explaining the similarities and differences between two topics.
It is written in date order or the order in which the events happened.
It is written by identifying a conflict and then the way it was resolved.
Cause and effect explains the relationship between two or more events.
4.
What does it mean if a text is written with a problem/solution structure?
It is written by describing an event or two and the result of what happened after it.
It is written by explaining the similarities and differences between the two topics.
It is written in date order or the order in which the events happened.
It is written by identifying a conflict and then the way it is resolved.
Even in a nonfiction text, someone or thing faces a problem and it needs to be resolved.
5.
Read Story 1 - Paleoindians above.
What type of structure is the text written in?
Chronological order
Comparison
Cause/Effect
Problem/Solution
The Paleoindians are facing a problem and they resolve it.
6.
Read Story 1 - Paleoindians above.
What line from the text helps reveal the text structure?
They were called hunter-gatherers because that is how they got their food.
Before they came to America, they had already hunted many of the animals and gathered many of the berries they could find.
The Paleoindians needed food now or they would starve to death.
The Paleoindians were the very first group of people who came to America.
This sentence states the problem.
7.
Read Story 2 - Paleoindians above.
What type of structure is the text written in?
Chronological order
Comparison
Cause/Effect
Problem/Solution
This text is written in chronological order.
8.
Read Story 2 - Paleoindians above.
What is given in the text that is used in many texts using this type of structure?
Eventually
Over time
14,000 BCE
Usually
In texts written in chronological order, dates are usually given.
9.
Read Story 3 - Paleoindians above.
What type of structure is the text written in?
Chronological order
Comparison
Cause/effect
Problem/solution
Comparison texts compare two or more topics.
10.
Read Story 3 - Paleoindians above.
Which statement is true about Story 3?
Paleoindians would divide up jobs.
People in a civilization would divide up jobs.
Paleoindians settled in an area.
Both Paleoindians and all of those in a civilization hunted and gathered food.
People in a civilization didn't all have to hunt and gather anymore because they divided up the jobs.
Author:  Amy Flanders

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