Health - Exercise and Fitness

Swimming is an aerobic exercise.

Health - Exercise and Fitness

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An important aspect of science is maintaining good health. The body needs food for energy and growth but too much food or too little food can cause some serious health issues. To help alleviate those health issues, developing a good, balanced exercise and fitness program in your daily routine is very important.

What needs to be highlighted here is a “balanced” exercise and fitness program. Why balanced? Because different parts of the body need different exercises performed to strengthen them. In addition, if the body’s muscles are not exercised regularly, atrophy can set in. Atrophy is the wasting away and shrinking of a muscle due to none use. In severe cases, atrophy of the muscle can cause deformities in the body.

To address the different needs of the body, and to prevent atrophy, there are five basic types of exercises. These are:

Aerobic Exercise

Aerobic exercises are also often referred to as cardiovascular exercises. They include any sustained, rhythmic activity that affects large muscle groups. Examples of Aerobic exercises include: brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, in-line skating and other nonstop vigorous exercises. Regular aerobic exercise benefits your cardiovascular system.

Anaerobic Exercise

Anaerobic exercises are very rigorous exercises. They involve stop and go exercises that include: sprint racing, basketball, football, baseball and weight lifting.

Isometric Exercises

Isometric exercises are strength-building exercises such as weight lifting.

Isotonic Exercises

Isotonic exercises are those exercises that have no over-extended joint movement but rather tension is developed within the muscle to support a load. Examples of Isotonic exercises include: push-ups, pull-ups and crunches.

Isokinetic Exercises

Isokinetic exercises involve muscle activity that is performed at a constant angular speed. Tension remains constant while muscles shorten or lengthen. Examples of Isokinetic exercises would include exercise using a work-out machine like a Bowflex or a treadmill. A machine that gives you resistance.

Whenever you start an exercise/fitness program, you should never just jump into doing the exercises. This can injure muscles, joints and even bones. To prevent injuries, the workout should be done in three phases.

THE WORKOUT

  1. The Warm-up. Injuries are more likely to occur when muscles, tendons, and ligaments are “tight” or “cold”. The initial warm-up should begin with a whole-body activity, such as walking and swinging your arms (lasting about 5 minutes). The next 5 minutes should include stretching the major muscles such as the shoulders, the back, and calf muscles.
  2. The Work-out. Should include aerobic exercises.
  3. The Cool Down. Slow your activities and then stretch your muscles (much like in the warm-up).

Maintaining Hydration

Strenuous physical activity requires an increase in liquids, especially in hot conditions, to prevent hydration.

Benefits of Exercise

Some of the benefits of exercise include the following:

  • good muscle tone
  • improved posture and appearance
  • increased resistance to injury
  • loss of body fat
  • increased basal metabolism
  • lower blood pressure
  • reduced risk of cardiovascular disease
  • increased resistance to disease
  • improved quality of sleep

When you are young you often tend to think that you do not need to exercise. Nothing could be further from the truth. The fact is, you are never too young to start exercising. In fact, the younger you are, the better chance you have of becoming a healthier and physically stronger adult. So if you haven’t already started a fitness program, challenge yourself to begin today. Then look at the following ten question and see how much you have learned about exercise and fitness.

1.
The first step of any work-out is ______.
knee bends
arm rotations
the warm-up
waist bends
The first step of any work-out is the warm-up. Answer (c) is correct
2.
These types of exercises include push-ups, pull-ups and crunches.
Isokinetic
Aerobic
Isotonic
Anaerobic
Isotonic exercises include push-ups, pull-ups and crunches. Answer (c) is correct
3.
These types of exercises would include exercises using a work-out machine like a Bowflex or a treadmill.
Isotonic
Isokinetic
Isometric
Aerobic
Isokinetic exercises include exercises using a work-out machine like a Bowflex or a treadmill. Answer (b) is correct
4.
These types of exercises include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, in-line skating and other nonstop vigorous exercises. They also benefit the cardiovascular system.
Isometric
Isotonic
Anaerobic
Aerobic
Aerobic exercises include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, in-line skating and other nonstop vigorous exercises. They also benefit the cardiovascular system. Answer (d) is correct
5.
These types of exercises are strength-building exercises such as weight lifting.
Anaerobic
Isotonic
Isokinetic
Isometric
Isometric exercises are strength-building exercises such as weight lifting. Answer (d) is correct
6.
An exercise and fitness program should always be ______.
rigorous
done daily
associated with a diet
balanced
An exercise and fitness program should always be balanced. Answer (d) is correct
7.
These type of exercises are very rigorous exercises and include sprint racing, basketball, football, baseball and weight lifting.
Anaerobic
Isokinetic
Aerobic
Isotonic
Anaerobic exercises are very rigorous exercises and include sprint racing, basketball, football, baseball and weight lifting. Answer (a) is correct
8.
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of exercising?
Increased basal metabolism
Increased resistance to disease
Improved quality of sleep
Flawless complexion
A regular exercise/fitness program provides many benefits including an increased basal metabolism, increased resistance to diseases and improved quality of sleep. It does not provide for a flawless complexion but does provide for a healthier blood flow which can improve the complexion. Answer (d) is correct
9.
Strenuous physical activity requires an increase in ______.
liquids
body mass
atrophy
duration
Strenuous physical activity requires an increase in liquids. Answer (a) is correct
10.
This is the wasting away and shrinking of a muscle due to none use.
Mutilation
Atrophy
Cardiovascular disease
Poor posture
Atrophy is the wasting away and shrinking of a muscle due to none use. Answer (b) is correct
Author:  Christine G. Broome

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