Microorganisms
Bread acquires its texture from the action of microorganisms.

Microorganisms

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Microorganisms are tiny life forms, so small that we need a microscope to see them. There are many types: bacteria, viruses and some kinds of fungi. Did you know that if you could weigh all the microorganisms on the Earth, they would weigh more than all other species combined? Microorganisms are found in every environment on the planet - even in the stomachs of cows and your own intestines!

What can we use to kill bacteria? Are viruses alive? How do fungi help us to make bread? Try this quiz to see what you know about these tiny living organisms.

1.
Which doctor developed a vaccination for smallpox?
Alexander Fleming
Marie Curie
Louis Pasteur
Edward Jenner
It's been said that Jenner's work has saved more lives than that of anyone else
2.
In order to see a microbe (a single microorganism), what would you need to use?
A telescope
A magnifying glass
A microscope
A pair of glasses
You can see colonies of microorganisms with the naked eye, but you would not be able to see a single microbe without a microscope
3.
Colds, influenza (flu) and chickenpox are caused by what?
Fungi
Viruses
Bacteria
Amoebas
Scientists are not agreed on whether viruses are even alive. Remember MRS. NERG? Viruses don't demonstrate all seven life processes. Viruses aren't sensitive (they don't respond to their environment) and they don't reproduce on their own (they take over another species' cells, causing them to reproduce viruses)
4.
Penicillin, yeast and mold are examples of what?
Fungi
Viruses
Bacteria
Algae
Fungi include single-celled microbes such as yeasts and molds (including penicillium, which provides us with penicillin) as well as multicellular organisms such as mushrooms, which are not microorganisms
5.
Compost bins are full of rotting organic matter, such as vegetable peelings, moldy fruit and grass clippings. Which microorganisms help this material to decompose (rot)?
Bacteria
Viruses
Algae
All of the above
Fungi also help with decomposition
6.
Many foods acquire their flavor or texture from the action of microorganisms. For which of the following foods is this not true?
Live yogurt
Wine
Jelly
Bread
Bread and wine both use yeast which is a fungi. Yogurt uses bacteria
7.
Which of the following are not microorganisms?
Yeast
Mould
Bacteria
Ants
Ants are insects
8.
Salmonella, E. Coli and Listeria: these causes of food poisoning are examples of what?
Fungi
Viruses
Bacteria
Amoebas
Not all bacteria are bad - our bodies use some kinds to help us digest food
9.
Which of the following statements is true?
Microbes are not living organisms
Some microorganisms are beneficial
All microorganisms are dangerous to humans
There are not very many types of microorganism
Some microorganisms are so beneficial that life would not be possible without them. The bacteria living on the roots of plants allow the plants to get the nitrogen they need from the soil - and remember, all life on Earth is dependent on plants
10.
What are antibiotics designed to fight?
Fungi
Viruses
Bacteria
All microorganisms
Antibiotics cannot kill viruses - this is why doctors do not prescribe them for colds (which are caused by viruses)
Author:  Sheri Smith

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