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Physics is the study of matter. Matter is any object having mass. It is also used to describe all physical objects.
State of Matter refers to the phases of matter. There are four phases that include solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Plasma is the most abundant form of matter in the entire universe, although it is not a common state of matter. Most stars are in a state of plasma.
The three common forms of matter that we readily encounter are solids, liquids and gases. Each of these is made up of molecules, ions and atoms. However, the behaviors of the molecules, ions and atoms differ in each phase.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group consisting of two or more atoms. They are held together by a chemical bond. Molecules are common in organic substances and make up most of the oceans and atmosphere.
An ion is a molecule or an atom. It contains an uneven number of electrons and protons which give an atom either a negative or a positive electrical charge.
An atom is the basic unit of matter. The atom has a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
A solid is matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume.
A liquid is matter that does not have a definite shape but, rather, has volume and takes the shape of whatever container it is in such as a lake or a pool or even a glass.
Gas is a state of matter that changes both its shape and its volume as it is not contained.
Volume is the amount of space that matter takes up.
CHANGING FORMS OF MATTER
Freezing is the process of changing liquid matter into solid matter.
Vaporization is the process of changing liquid matter into a water vapor.
Evaporation is the process by which molecules at the surface of liquid matter are absorbed, causing the liquid matter to change into a gaseous state.
Condensation is when gas matter loses thermal energy and converts to a liquid form.
Sublimation is when the surface of solid matter has enough energy to convert to a gas.
LAWS OF MATTER
Charles’ Law: Charles’s Law is related to the temperature of gas. As the temperature increases, the volume of the gas increases.
Boyle’s Law: Boyle’s Law is the relationship that exists between pressure and the volume of gas.