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Earthquakes and Volcanoes 01
Iron (as found in this rusty gate above) makes up the majority of the earth's core.

Earthquakes and Volcanoes 01

This KS3 Geography quiz will challenge you about earthquakes and volcanoes. From time to time, you may hear about earthquakes and volcanoes in the news. When they occur, they can sometimes be very destructive and people may be killed. In Britain, there are several earthquakes every year, but most are so small that hardly anyone notices them. We don't have any active or dormant volcanoes, ours are all extinct. The reason that we don't have big earthquakes and volcanoes is that we are not at a plate boundary.

The Earth is made from several different layers - the core, the mantle and the crust. The crust is the thinnest of the three layers and is cracked into large areas called plates. In some places the plates move apart. Molten material comes up as volcanoes from the hot inside of the Earth, filling up the gap as the plates move apart. In other places, one plate is pushed under another plate, down into the Earth. This movement is not smooth and each sudden movement is felt as an earthquake. The pushed-down plate also melts and the molten rock comes to the surface as a volcano. In some places the plates move sideways past each other. This movement is not smooth and again, the sudden movements are felt as earthquakes.

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1.
Which of these areas is unlikely to suffer an earthquake?
California
Japan
New Zealand
Scandinavia
It isn't in an unstable part of the Earth's crust because it is not near to a plate boundary
2.
Why doesn't the UK have any active volcanoes?
It doesn't have high enough mountains
It doesn't lie on a plate boundary
It is surrounded by sea
The earth underneath isn't hot enough
The last British volcanoes were active over 30 million years ago
3.
What type of volcano has not erupted for many years but could still do so?
Dormant
Extinct
Snoozing
Somnolent
The name dormant suggests that it's 'sleeping'
4.
What is the name for the main opening in a volcano?
Chimney
Downpipe
Vein
Vent
A vent usually appears at the surface as a crater if the volcano is still active. You can still see craters in extinct volcanoes if they haven't been eroded too much
5.
What instrument is used to measure an earthquake?
Anemometer
Galvanometer
Seismometer
Shakeometer
The most common scale for measuring the strength of an earthquake is the Richter scale
6.
The earth's crust is made up of separate pieces called what?
Plates
Platters
Saucers
Slabs
These move in different directions at the speed of a fingernail growing
7.
The earth is made up of how many layers?
2
3
4
6
These are the inner core, the outer core, the mantle and the crust
8.
What is the name of the earth's thin surface layer?
Crust
Mantle
Shell
Veneer
Although 'thin' it can be between 5 and 60+ km thick. That's a lot of km, but it is thin when compared with the rest of the thickness of the Earth
9.
The earth's core is mainly made up of which metal?
Copper
Iron
Magnesium
Zinc
Approximately 90% iron, 10% nickel
10.
Molten rock inside the earth has what name?
Lava
Magenta
Magma
Silica
It's called lava only if it flows out of a volcano
Author:  Jan Crompton

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